SENTENCE & PHRASE

SENTENCE & PHRASE

Sentence:
▪ serangkaian kata yang paling sedikit mempunyai subyek dan predikat;
▪ serangkaian kata yang mempunyai arti yang lengkap.

Phrase:
▪ serangkaian kata yang tidak mempunyai subyek dan predikat;
▪ serangkaian kata yang tidak mempunyai arti yang lengkap.

NOUN PHRASE

Noun Phrase:
▪ serangkaian kata yang tidak mempunyai subyek, predikat, dan arti yang lengkap; serta dalam serangkaian kata tersebut terdapat kata benda yang diterangkan oleh kata lainnya.

Principal Noun / Head Word / Key Word:
▪ kata benda yang diterangkan oleh oleh kata lainnya dalam Noun Phrase.

Pre Modifier:
▪ kata yang menerangkan kata benda dalam Noun Phrase, dan kata tersebut berada di depan kata benda yang diterangkan.

Post Modifier:
▪ kata yang menerangkan kata benda dalam Noun Phrase, dan kata tersebut berada di belakang kata benda yang diterangkan.

Penggunaan Principal Noun, Pre Modifier, dan Post Modifier dalam Noun Phrase,
serta Penggunaan Noun Phrase dalam Kalimat

Penggunaan Principal Noun dan Pre Modifier dalam Noun Phrase:

Pre Modifier Principal
Noun /
Head word /
Key word
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Determiner Quality /
Character Size Age /
Temperature Shape Color Origin /
Location Participle Material Noun
The beautiful big antique square brown Indonesian handmade
(V3 / Past
Participle) teak kitchen cupboard

Noun Phrase dalam table di atas: The beautiful, big, antique, square, brown, Indonesian, handmade, teak, kitchen cupboard.
▪ Principal Noun dalam Noun Phrase di atas: cupboard.
▪ Pre Modifier dalam Noun Phrase di atas: The beautiful, big, antique, square, brown, Indonesian, handmade, teak, kitchen.
▪ Keterangan:
Tiap-tiap unsur Pre Modifier tersebut menerangkan Principal Noun di atas.

Bandingkan.
▪ Dalam Noun Phrase a small, car factory, Pre Modifiers a small, car menerangkan Principal Noun factory. (= sebuah pabrik kecil untuk membuat mobil) (Yang kecil pabriknya)
▪ Dalam Noun Phrase a small–car factory, Pre Modifier a menerangkan Principal Noun factory; Pre Modifier small menerangkan Pre Modifier car dan bersama sama menerangkan Principal Noun factory. (= sebuah pabrik untuk membuat mobil kecil) (Yang kecil mobilnya)

Contoh penggunaan Principal Noun dan Pre Modifier dalam Noun Phrase lainnya:
▪ The pretty, tall, young, American lady
▪ A step–by–step plan
▪ The five–story building
▪ The foreign–language academy.

Bandingkan.
▪ Dalam Noun Phrase the neat, written letters, Pre Modifier the neat, written (V3 / Past Participle) menerangkan Principal Noun letters. (= Surat surat yang ditulis dan rapi itu) (Yang rapi suratnya)
▪ Dalam Noun Phrase the neatly written letters, Pre Modifier the menerangkan Principal Noun letters; Pre Modifier neatly menerangkan Pre Modifierwritten dan bersama sama menerangkan Principal Noun letters. (= Surat surat yang ditulis dengan rapi itu) (Yang rapi menulisnya)
Keterangan:
▪ Pre Modifier yang berupa V3 / Past Participle dapat diterjemahkan dengan … yang di / ter ….

Bandingkan.
▪ Dalam Noun Phrase singing birds, Pre Modifier singing menerangkan Principal Noun birds dan merupakan Present Participle. (= burung burung yang bernyanyi)
▪ Dalam Noun Phrase walking sticks, Pre Modifier walking menerangkan Principal Noun sticks dan merupakan Gerund. (= tongkat tongkat untuk berjalan)
Keterangan:
▪ Pre Modifier yang berupa Present Participle dapat diterjemahkan dengan … yang ….
▪ Pre Modifier yang berupa Gerund dapat diterjemahkan dengan … untuk ….
Contoh penggunaan Principal Noun dan Pre Modifier dalam Noun Phrase dalam kali mat:
▪ The beautiful, big, antique, square, brown, Indonesian, handmade, teak, kitchen cupboard is mine. Kalimat dasarnya (=The basic sentence): The cupboard is mine.
▪ I like the beautiful, big, antique, square, brown, Indonesian, handmade, teak, kitchen cupboard. Kalimat dasarnya: I like the cupboard.
▪ He owns a small, car factory. Kalimat dasarnya: He owns a factory.
▪ They made a step–by–step plan. Kalimat dasarnya: They made a plan.
▪ She climbed the five–story building. Kalimat dasarnya: She climbed the building.
▪ He sent neatly written letters. Kalimat dasarnya: He sent letters.
▪ She is a mathematics teacher. Kalimat dasarnya: He is a teacher.
▪ They are English speaking students. Kalimat dasarnya: They are students.

Bandingkan.
▪ The pretty lady. (= Wanita yang cantik itu) (Noun Phrase).
The lady is pretty. (Wanita itu cantik) (Sentence).

Contoh penggunaan Post Modifier dalam Noun Phrase:
▪ The lady on the chair over there.
(= Wanita yang di atas kursi di sebelah sana itu)
▪ The lady over there.
(= Wanita yang di sebelah sana itu)
▪ The lady there.
(= Wanita yang di sana itu)
▪ The lady typing (Present Participle) in my room.
(= Wanita yang (sedang) mengetik di ruangan saya itu)
▪ The lady interviewed (Verb 3 / Past Participle) by the Manager.
(= Wanita yang diwawancarai manajer itu)

Keterangan:
▪ Pre dan Post Modifier yang berupa Present Participle dapat diterjemahkan dengan … yang me / ber … kecuali bila awalan tersebut sudah aus.
▪ Pre dan Post Modifier yang berupa V3 / Past Participle dapat diterjemahkan dengan … yang di / ter ….

Contoh penggunaan Post Modifier dalam Noun Phrase dalam kali mat:
▪ The lady on the chair over there is my secretary. Kalimat dasarnya: The lady is my secretary.

Bandingkan.
▪ The lady on the chair over there. (= Wanita yang di atas kursi di sebelah sana itu) (Noun Phrase).
The lady is on the chair over there. (= Wanita itu di atas kursi di sebelah sana) (Sentence).
▪ The lady typing in my room. (= Wanita yang (mengetik di ruangan saya itu) (Noun Phrase).
The lady is typing in my room. (= Wanita itu sedang mengetik di ruangan saya) (Sentence).

Contoh penggunaan Post Modifier dalam Noun Phrase dalam kalimat lainnya:
▪ That computer, rather than this, is good. Kalimat dasarnya: That computer is good.
▪ Our English teacher, with all of us, is busy. Kalimat dasarnya: Our teacher is busy.
▪ The baby, together with its mother, was safe from the accident. Kalimat dasarnya: The baby was safe.
▪ This student, like / unlike / as well as John, reads a lot. Kalimat dasarnya: This student reads.
▪ Everything new is like that. Kalimat dasarnya: Everything is like that.
▪ Everybody normal knows it. Kalimat dasarnya: Everybody knows it.

Contoh penggunaan Pre Modifier dan Post Modifier dalam Noun Phrase dalam kali mat:
The pretty, tall, young lady typing in my room is my secretary. Kalimat dasarnya: The lady is my secretary.

’S

▪ ’S dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan milik orang atau binatang dalam Noun Phrase.
Contoh:
▪ John’s computer (Principal Noun–nya computer, dan John’s merupakan Pre Modifier yang berupa Determiner)
▪ John’s computers
▪ John’s friend’s house
▪ John’s friend’s houses
▪ The bird’s nest
▪ The bird’s nests.
Catatan:
▪ Bila ’S digunakan untuk menyatakan milik orang sebagai kata benda dalam bentuk jamak, S pada ’S dihilangkan.
Contoh:
▪ The students’ classroom
▪ The students’ classrooms.
▪ Bila ’S digunakan untuk menyatakan milik orang yang namanya berakhiran S, dan nama yang disebutkan terdiri atas dua atau lebih suku kata, S pada ’S dihilangkan.
Contoh:
▪ Mrs. Perkins’ PC.
▪ Bila ’S digunakan untuk menyatakan milik orang yang namanya berakhiran S, dan nama yang disebutkan terdiri atas satu suku kata, S pada ’S tidak dihilangkan.
Contoh:
▪ Mr. Jones’s PC.

▪ ’S dapat digunakan untuk pola waktu + ’s + noun
Contoh:
▪ Yesterday’s newspaper
▪ One hour’s walk (One–hour walk)
▪ Two hours’ journey (Two–hour journey)
▪ Three years’ imprisonment (Three–year imprisonment).
Catatan:
Kata benda dalam bentuk jamak tidak boleh digunakan untuk Pre Modifier kecuali kata benda tersebut memang berakhiran dengan S.
Contoh:
▪ A mathematics teacher (Benar)
▪ Two–hours journey (Salah).

Contoh penggunaan ’S dalam Noun Phrase dalam kalimat:
John’s computer is powerful.
John’s computers are powerful.
I am looking for yesterday’s newspaper.
He was sentenced to three years’ imprisonment.

OF

OF sebagai preposisi dalam Noun Phrase
▪ Untuk menyatakan milik selain manusia dan binatang
Contoh:
▪ The legs of the table (the table legs). Principal Noun–nya: legs.

Contoh penggunaan OF dalam Noun Phrase lainnya:
▪ The meeting of the members of the club. Principal Noun–nya: meeting.
▪ The city of Jakarta (Jakarta city). Principal Noun–nya: city.
▪ The academy of foreign languages. Principal Noun–nya: academy.

Contoh penggunaan OF dalam Noun Phrase dalam kalimat:
▪ The city of Jakarta is dangerous. Kalimat dasarnya: The city is dangerous.
▪ The legs of the table are broken. Kalimat dasarnya: The legs are broken.
▪ The meeting of the members of the club was cancelled. Kalimat dasarnya: The meeting was cancelled.

Pengembangan Kalimat Tunggal dengan Pre Modifiers dan Post Modifiers dalam Noun Phrases serta Adverbial Phrases
1. Last week, the new instructor of programming languages, as well as his assistants, was absent every day.
Keterangan:
a. Kali mat dasarnya: The instructor was absent. (Dari pola kalimat tunggal I)
b. Last week (Adverbial of Time), the instructor (Principal Noun dalam Noun Phrase sebagai unsur pokok Subyek), of programming languages, as well as his assistants (Post Modifier), was absent (Kata Kerja Penghubung (= Lingking Verb) Be yang diikuti kata sifat sebagai unsur pokok Predikat)
2. The thin, tall, old, Javanese woman typing in that staff room works industriously at this company every day except Sundays from seven a. m. to four p. m. to finance her son’s study at one of the departments of information technology of the private universities in the special territory of Yogyakarta.
Keterangan:
a. Kali mat dasar kalimat di atas: The woman works. (Dari pola kalimat tunggal III)
b. The thin, tall, old, Javanese (Pre Modifier) woman (Principal Noun dalam Noun Phrase sebagai unsur pokok Subyek) typing in that staff room (Post Modifier) works (Kata Kerja Intransitif (= Intransitive Verb) sebagai unsur pokok Predikat) industriously (Adverb Of Manner) at this company (= Adverbial Of Place) every day except Sundays from seven a. m. to four p. m. (Adverbial Of Time) to finance her son’s study (Adverbial Of Purpose) at one of the departments of information technology of the private universities in the special territory of Yogyakarta (Adverbial Of Place).

Exercises
A. Rewrite the Principal Noun in Each of the Following Noun Phrases.
1. Portrait and Landscape orientation options.
2. Tiny, magnetized or unmagnetized core.
3. A change in the printable page on the screen.
4. The selection at the left of the top line of icons.
5. The versatility of an electronic machine for processing data.
6. The standard measure of distance on a computer screen.
7. A straight line between the starting point and the cursor.
8. On and off switches inside the mechanism.
9. The diagram accompanying the selection.
10. The nine tools used to draw, shape, outline, view and fill objects.

B. Rewrite the Basic Sentence in Each of the Following Sentences
1. Your rectangle is selected because of the black box at each corner and on each side.
2. A straight line forms between the starting point and the cursor.
3. The message on your screen names the file.
4. Each of the seven drops-down menus offers a selection of the command.
5. Either of the lines of icons determines outline shading or color.
6. The value of data produced by a computer requires the programming
7. The selection at the left of the top line of icons provides access to the dialog box for assigning custom outline width and shapes.
8. The toolbox displays icons of the nine tools used to draw, shape, outline, view and fill objects.
9. The diagrams accompanying the selections provide a graphic depiction of the result.
10. Programs, often called application programs, are instructions written in computer languages.

Exercises

A. Rewrite the Principal Noun in Each of the Following Noun Phrases.
1. Portrait and Landscape orientation options.
2. Tiny, magnetized or unmagnetized core.
3. A change in the printable page on the screen.
4. The selection at the left of the top line of icons.
5. The versatility of an electronic machine for processing data.
6. The standard measure of distance on a computer screen.
7. A straight line between the starting point and the cursor.
8. On and off switches inside the mechanism.
9. The diagram accompanying the selection.
10. The nine tools used to draw, shape, outline, view and fill objects.

B. Rewrite the Basic Sentence in Each of the Following Sentences
1. Your rectangle is selected because of the black box at each corner and on each side.
2. A straight line forms between the starting point and the cursor.
3. The message on your screen names the file.
4. Each of the seven drops-down menus offers a selection of the command.
5. Either of the lines of icons determines outline shading or color.
6. The value of data produced by a computer requires the programming
7. The selection at the left of the top line of icons provides access to the dialog box for assigning custom outline width and shapes.
8. The toolbox displays icons of the nine tools used to draw, shape, outline, view and fill objects.
9. The diagrams accompanying the selections provide a graphic depiction of the result.
10. Programs, often called application programs, are instructions written in computer languages.
11. After a long walk, the gleaming glass doors of the new department store finally opened to the public.
12. The 6:40 express train from Newtown at long last arrived at the crowded station.
13. A small but vicious dog at our neighbor’s house noisily and persistently barked all night.
14. The securely wrapped package of spare parts for the tractor came by registered mail yesterday.
15. In spite of our best efforts, all essential work at the rubber tire factory stopped completely.
16. A very famous musician from the conservatory played for one hour yesterday.
17. That very popular tourist hotel will soon open for the summer season.
18. The engineering students in Prof. Ober’s class busily studied for their examination all night.
19. Dr. Sheila Avery, the well-known physicist at the research laboratory, is lecturing tonight at the auditorium.
20. The jumbo jet airliner, after a long delay, finally landed safely at the airport.
21. A very strange thing happened on the way to work.

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