▪ ENGLISH SENTENCES:
1. Simple Sentence
2. Compound Sentence
3. Complex Sentence:
a. Adjective Clause
b. Noun Clause
c. Adverbial Clause
4. Compound and Complex Sentence.
▪ serangkaian kata yang paling sedikit mempunyai subyek (S) dan predikat (P);
▪ serangkaian kata yang mempunyai pengertian yang lengkap.
▪ serangkaian kata yang tidak mempunyai subyek dan predikat;
▪ serangkaian kata yang tidak mempunyai pengertian yang lengkap.
▪ Principal Noun / Head Word / Key Word:
▪ kata yang diterangkan oleh Pre Modifier atau Post Modifier.
▪ Pre Modifier:
▪ modifier yang berada di depan Principal Noun.
▪ Post Modifier:
▪ modifier yang berada di belakang Principal Noun.
▪ Contoh Pre Modifier:
▪ The pretty, tall, young, American LADY (Phrase) (The Principal Noun: LADY)
▪ Contoh Post Modifier:
▪ The LADY on the chair over there (Phrase)
▪ The LADY over there (Phrase)
▪ The LADY there (Phrase)
▪ The LADY there (= Wanita yang di sana itu …) (Phrase, serangkaian kata yang tidak memiliki S dan P serta tidak mempunyai arti yang lengkap)
▪ The LADY is there. (= Wanita itu di sana)
(Sentence, serangkaian kata yang mempunyai S dan P serta mempunyai arti yang lengkap)
▪ Catatan: Kata Kunci (Principal Noun) yang jamak atau tunggal dapat
menentukan bentuk predikat (agreement).
▪ Contoh kata benda yang dapat dapat dihitung dalam bentuk tunggal dan jamak: computer (tunggal), computers (jamak), lady (tunggal), ladies (jamak), box (tunggal), boxes (jamak), watch (tunggal), watches (jamak), people (= orang) (selalu jamak), peoples (= bangsa-bangsa) (jamak), policeman (tunggal), police (jamak), committee (tunggal / jamak), economics / mathematics / physics / politics / statistics (tunggal karena memang masing-masing dengan s), dan sebagainya. Selanjutnya, contoh kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung yang selalu dianggap tunggal meskipun banyak: much money (tunggal), nineteen dollars (tunggal), much information, dan sebagainya.
▪ Contoh Agreement antara S dan P Berdasarkan Kata Kunci dalam S:
▪ The pretty, tall, young, American LADY on the chair over there
IS a secretary.
▪ The pretty, tall, young, American LADIES on the chair over
there ARE secretaries.
▪ That COMPUTER, rather than (= daripada) this, IS good.
▪ Our English TEACHER, with all of us, IS very busy.
▪ The BABY, together with its mother, WAS safe from the
▪ This STUDENT, (un)like (= (tidak) seperti) John, READS a lot.
▪ untuk menyatakan milik orang. Contoh:
▪ John’s COMPUTERS (Phrase) (The Principal Noun: COMPUTERS)
▪ The students’ BOARDING HOUSE is a long way from here. (Sentence)
▪ dapat dikombinasi dengan waktu. Contoh:
yesterday’s NEWSPAPER, one hour’s WALK, three hours’ JOURNEY (three–hour JOURNEY), today’s WEATHER, etc.
▪ Untuk menyatakan selain manusia. Contoh:
▪ The LEGS of the table (= The table LEGS) (Phrase) (the Principal Noun: LEGS)
▪ The LEGS of the table (The table LEGS) are broken. (Sentence)
▪ The MEETING of the members of the club (Phrase) (the Principal Noun: MEETING)
▪ The MEETING of the members of the club was cancelled. (Sentence)
▪ The CITY of Jakarta (Jakarta CITY) (Phrase) the Principal Noun: CITY)
▪ The CITY of Jakarta (Jakarta CITY) is dangerous. (Sentence)
English speaking STUDENTS
(Phrase) The Principal Noun : STUDENTS
THEY ARE English speaking STUDENTS. (Sentence) THE foreign language ACADEMY
THE ACADEMY of foreign languages
(Phrase) The Principal Noun : THE ACADEMY
A mathematics THEACHER
(Phrase) The Principal Noun : A TEACHER
HE IS A Mathematics TEACHER. (Sentence) Thre Basic Sentence Pattern : HE IS A TEACHER
THE swimming POOL
(Phrase) The Principal Noun : THE POOL
THE rolling STONE
(Phrase) The Principal Noun : THE STONE
EVERYTHING new IS LIKE THAT. (Sentence) The Basic Sentence Pattern :
EVERYTHING IS LIKE THAT
EVERYBODY normal KNOWS IT(Sentence) The Basic Sentence Pattern :
EVERYBODY KNOWS IT.
Both (of) the (two) PCs are expensive.
Both of them are expensive.
Neither of the (two) laptops is cheap. (formal)
Neither of the (two) laptops are cheap. (informal)
Neither of them is cheap.
Either of the (two) notebooks is powerful.
Either of them is powerful.
▪ Most (= kebanyakan)
Many (= banyak)
More (= lebih banyak)
Some (= beberapa)
Quite a few (= cukup banyak)
Few (= sedikit)
Quite few (= amat sedikit)
Half (= separuh)
Two (= dua)
All (= semua)
▪ None (= tak satupun dari 3 atau lebih) of the students is successful. (formal)
None (= tak satupun dari 3 atau lebih) of the students are successful. (informal)
▪ One (= salah satu dari 3 atau lebih)
▪ Any (= yang mana pun)
▪ Each (= tiap-tiap)
A. Find the Principal Noun in Each of the Following Phrases:
1. The application of an interactive CD in the profile of ‘Yogyakarta’ hotel.
2. Computerization for processing the data of the members of ‘Bantul’ cooperative.
3. The information Systems of the data of outpatients and inpatients in ‘Sleman’ hospital.
4. Host computers on the Internet.
5. Someone else’s Internet connection.
6. A connection to an existing account using the Wizard.
7. A dial-up networking connection using the Internet connection Wizard.
8. An input or output device attached to a computer.
B. Find the Element that Forms the Basic Sentence Pattern in Each of the Following sentences:
1. Mall servers handle incoming and outgoing mall.
2. Post Office Protocol (POP) servers store incoming mall.
3. Simple Mall Transfer Protocol (SMTP) servers relay outgoing mall.
4. A lot of computers on the Internet use servers to get information.
5. Dial-up networking provides the communication link needed by Internet services.
6. Computers connected to the Internet communicate by using the Internet Protocol (IP).
7. Each host computer on the internet has a unique number, called its Internet Protocol address.
8. The World Wide Web is a distributed system of Interlinked pages including text, pictures, sound, and other Information.
Coordinate Conjunction dapat digunakan untuk menggabungkan unsur yang paralel dalam kalimat.
▪ He and I will serve on (= menjadi anggota) the board of directors.
▪ My supervisor called him and me to meet in his office.
▪ Just between you and me, Tom is uncertain about whether to accept the offer to manage the business.
▪ The date and the time of the meeting have not been set.
▪ The growth and development of our company is phenomenal.
▪ John’s and Jane’s reports are quite different from each other.
▪ A mainframe is large and expensive.
▪ He tested and debugged the entire program last week.
▪ The programmer presented his new software package to the supervisor and to the department manager.
▪ All aspiring computer analysts are trained in inputting new data and in utilizing appropriate software to interpret the data.
Or: All aspiring computer analysts are trained to input new data and to utilize appropriate software to interpret the data.
▪ The ability to think logically and to calculate accurately is important for an accountant.
▪ Screening the applicants and interviewing the best candidates require considerate time.
▪ A palmtop is small but powerful.
▪ She tried hard but did not succeed.
▪ The software or the computers are crucial.
▪ They usually advertise their companies on the Internet or in newspapers.
Correlative Conjunction dapat digunakan untuk menggabungkan unsur yang paralel dalam kalimat.
▪ both … and
▪ The manager is out. His secretary is out.
Both the manager and his secretary are out. (both + noun; and + noun)
▪ He sells used PCs. He buys used PCs.
He both sells and buys used PCs. (both + verb; and + verb)
▪ She speaks English. She speaks Japanese.
She speaks both English and Japanese. (both + noun; and + noun)
▪ neither … or
▪ The systems analyst is not in the laboratory.
His assistant is not in the laboratory.
Neither the systems analyst nor his assistant is in the laboratory. (neither + noun; nor + noun)
▪ I cannot trust the manager. I cannot trust his secretary.
I can trust neither the manager nor his secretary. (neither + noun; nor + noun)
▪ The instructor did not speak slowly.
The instructor did not speak clearly.
The instructor spoke neither slowly nor clearly. (neither + adverb of manner; nor + adverb of manner)
▪ not only … but also / not only … but … as well
▪ A computer programmer writes programs.
A computer programmer tests programs.
A computer programmer not only writes but also tests programs. (not only + verb; but also + verb)
▪ They study IT. They study English.
They study not only IT but also English. (not only + noun; but also + noun)
▪ The microchip technology has put chips into computers.
The microchip technology has put chips into cars.
The microchip technology has put chips not only into computers but also into cars. (not only + preposition; but also + preposition)
▪ either … or
▪ You should upload the information. I should upload the information.
Either you or I should upload the information. (either + personal pronoun; or + personal pronoun)
▪ He must pay the bill at once. He must return the goods.
He must either pay the bill at once or return the goods. (either + verb; or + verb)
A. Supply the Correct Forms of the Verbs in Parentheses:
1. The invention of new types of memory devices never (cease).
2. The issuer of credit cards (provide) a short-term loan to the cardholder.
3. The main question on most people’s minds (be) why e-mail security is necessary.
4. The best and most widely used type of encryption (utilize) a pair of mathematically related number.
5. Companies with excess computing capacity (be) able to market information services as a new business opportunity.
6. A review of the procedures (require) our attention.
7. Her letter, together with the enclosures, (be) here.
8. Any one of the applicants (be) capable of doing it.
9. Fifty dollars (be) the amount he owes.
10. The director, not the staff members, (be ) late every morning last week.
11. The computer programmer, as well as his assistants, (be) busy lately.
12. He, not I, (be) going to interview the applicant.
13. Six years before retirement (seem) like a long time.
14. Manpower, rather than natural resources, (be) more important.
15. This PC, unlike those ones, (be) powerful.
16. (Be) John or Jane coming to the meeting?
17. Not the staff members but the director (be) wrong.
18. The computers or the software (be) crucial.
B. Put Each of the Verbs in Parentheses in the Following Sentences in its Correct Form.
1. Microsoft (release) Access in 1991.
2. Database processing (change) continuously since 1970.
3. There (be) a lot of advances in computer technology since 1945.
4. By 1990, some vendors (develop) object-oriented DBMS products.
5. By the end of this year, they (work) on Information Management for approximately eight months.
C. Supply the correct passive voice forms of the verbs in parentheses to complete the following sentences.
1. Multi-user databases (manage) by a piece of software called a database management system.
2. Fiber-optic cable (install) on a large scale since 1980.
3. The order (send) before the cancellation was received.
4. Alternatively, databases can (create) from extracts of other databases.
5. All micro DBMS products (eliminate) by Microsoft Access in the early 1990s.