ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE (Adv. C)

1. Adv. C of Time
Conjunction-nya: when (= ketika), whenever (= kapan saja), while (= sementara / ketika), as soon as (= segera setelah), since (= sejak), before (= sebelum), after (= sesudah), until / till (= sampai).
Contoh:
▪ He came in when I was typing.
Keterangan:
He came in …: Main Clause / Independent Clause.
… when I was typing: Sub(ordinate) Clause / Dependent Clause.
▪ I have been busy since I last saw you.
▪ I left just as he entered.

2. Adv. C of Place
Conjunction-nya: where (= dimana), wherever (= dimana saja / kemana saja), as far as (= sejauh).
Contoh:
▪ I put the flash disk where I found it.
▪ I shall go wherever you go.
▪ I shall come as far as I can.

3. Adv. C of Manner
Conjunction-nya: as (= seperti), as if / as though (= seolah-olah).
Contoh:
▪ Pronounce the word as I do.
▪ She talks as if she knew everything.
▪ He behaves as if he were a manager.
Catatan:
Like (= seperti) diikuti oleh kata atau phrase bukan clause / kalimat.
Contoh:
Don’t talk like (= seperti) that. (Simple Sentence)
Jika ada like yang diikuti clause / kalimat, pemakaiannya tidak baku dan terdapat dalam American English.
Contoh:
Pronounce the word like (= seperti) I do.

4. Adv. C of Cause / Reason
Conjunction-nya: because, as, since, now that, seeing that, considering that, in that (= karena).
Contoh:
▪ As / since there was no one there, I went away.
▪ He was absent from work because he was sick. (Complex Sentence)
Catatan:
Because dan syinonimnya di atas diikuti oleh clause / kalimat bukan kata atau phrase tetapi because of dan syinonimnya, yaitu on account of, owing to, by reason of, dan due to diikuti oleh kata atau phrase bukan kalimat.
Contoh:
He was absent from work because of (= karena) his sickness. (Simple Sentence)

5. Adv. C of Concession
Conjunction-nya: although, though, even though, in spite of the fact that, for all that, notwithstanding (the fact that) (= meskipun).
Contoh:
▪ He went out in spite of the fact that the weather was bad.
Catatan:
In spite of the fact that dan syinonimnya di atas diikuti oleh clause / kalimat bukan phrase tetapi in spite of dan synonimnya, yaitu despite dan for all diikuti oleh phrase bukan clause / kalimat.
Contoh:
He went out in spite of the bad weather.

6. Adv. C of Condition
Conjunction-nya: jika (= jika), unless (= jika tidak / kecuali kalau), on condition that, / provided that / providing that / as long as / so long as (= asalkan).
Contoh:
▪ Type I (untuk waktu yang akan datang)
If I find your pen, I shall give it to you.
Verb 1 (V 1) V 1

▪ Type II (untuk waktu sekarang)
If I found your pen, I should give it to you.
V 2 V 1
▪ Type III (untuk waktu lampau)
If I had found your pen, I should have given it to you.
V 3 V 3
(= Had I found your pen, I should have given it to you)
V 3 V 3
Contoh yang lain:
▪ Type I (untuk waktu yang akan datang)
If I have much money, I shall buy a laptop for you.
V 1 V 1
▪ Type II (untuk waktu sekarang)
If I had much money, I should buy a laptop for you.
V 2 V 1
Keterangan:
… had … kata kerja penuh / V 2 yang berarti mempunyai.
▪ Type III (untuk waktu lampau)
If I had had much money, I should have bought a laptop for you.
V 3 V 3
(= Had I had much money, I should have bought a laptop for you)
V 3 V 3
Keterangan:
Had yang pertama kata kerja bantu, dan had yang kedua kata kerja penuh / V 3 yang berarti mempunyai.
Catatan:
Jika ada kata kerja penghubung be yang digunakan dalam Adv. C yang type II, kata kerja penghubung be-nya were.
Contoh:
If He were here, we should be happy. (Type II)
▪ Unless he does the work, he will not be paid.
▪ I will accept the job offer provided that I am provided with fringe benefits.

7. Adv. C of Contingency
Conjunction-nya: in case (= kalau kalau)
Contoh:
▪ He wore two watches in case either of them stopped.
8. Adv. C of Purpose
Conjunction-nya: so that (= sehingga), in order that, (= agar / supaya), dan lest (= agar tidak).
Dalam Adv. C of Purpose, setelah subyek digunakan might / may, should / shall, would / will, dan could / can.
Contoh:
▪ I have written it very clearly so that they can read it very easily.
▪ He ran quickly in order that he might be late.
▪ She went to the theatre early in order that she might get a seat. (Complex Sentence)
Keterangan:
In order that diikuti clause / kalimat bukan kata atau phrase tetapi bila in order tidak diikuti oleh that, in order dapat diikuti oleh to infinitive.
Contoh:
She went to the theatre early in order / so as (= agar) to get a seat. (Simple Sentence)
He ran quickly in order (= agar) not to be late (= tidak terlambat). (Simple Sentence)

9. Adv. C of Effect or Result
Conjunction-nya: so + adjective / adverb + that atau such + noun(s) + that (= begitu … sehingga).
Contoh:
▪ The weather was so warm that I did not wear a coat.
▪ We arrived so early that we had to wait for over an hour.
▪ She is such a shy person that she dislikes talking to strangers.

10. Adv. C of Comparison
Conjunction-nya: as + adjective / adverb + as (= se…) / (= sama … dengan), than (= daripada) atau more than (= lebih dari).
Contoh:
▪ He is as tall as his father is.
▪ She does it as well as I do.
▪ He is taller than I am.
▪ She likes you more than I do.

11. Adv. C of Proportion
▪ The harder he worked, the happier he felt. (= Semakin … semakin)

12. Adv. C of Reservation
Conjunction-nya: except that / except for the fact that.
Contoh:
▪ It is a good plan except that it misses out a visit to Yogyakarta. (Complex Sentence)
Keterangan:
Except that diikuti oleh clause / kalimat bukan kata atau phrase tetapi except diikuti oleh kata atau phrase bukan clause / kalimat.
Contoh:
They went there except Jono and Joni. (Simple Sentence)

Posted in Study. 4 Comments »

4 Responses to “ADVERBIAL CLAUSE”

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