TENSES

TENSES
Penggunaan Kata Kerja Penuh Be (Am, Is, dan Are) dalam Tenses
Simple Present Tense
I am here now / today / every day / once a month / twice a month
/ three times a month / on Sundays (= every Sunday)
/ this morning (= pagi ini).
He is
They are
Simple Past Tense
I
He was here yesterday / last week / last Sunday / three days ago
(= tiga hari yang lalu) / for (= selama) three days
/ this morning (= pagi tadi) / in 1999.
They were
Future Tense
I
He
They will
may
must
can be here tomorrow / today / next week / next Sunday / for three days / soon (= segera) / later (= nanti) / in five minutes.
Present Perfect Tense
I
They have been here since yesterday / until now / up to now (= sampai sekarang) / for three days / so far (= hingga kini)
/ in the last (past) few days (= dalam beberapa hari terakhir) / all day (= sepanjang hari) / lately (akhir-akhir ini).
He has
Past Perfect Tense
I
He
They had been here for two days before Ani came (verb II) (yesterday).

Simple Present Tense
There is a lot of development in our country now.
are a lot of advances
Simple Past Tense
There was a lot of development in our country last year.
were a lot of advances
Future Tense
There will
may
must
can be a lot of development
a lot of advances in our country in a few years to come
(= dalam beberapa tahun mendatang).
Present Perfect Tense
There has been a lot of development in our country in the last few years.
have been a lot of advances
Past Perfect Tense
There had been a lot of development
a lot of advances in our country before the Repelita started (verb II).

Kalimat Tanya Ya / Tidak
1. A: ‘Were (= Apakah) you in the head office (keterangan tempat) yesterday?’
B: ‘Yes, I was / No, I wasn’t (was not)’.

2. A: ‘Was (= Apakah) Jono absent (kata sifat) from work last Monday?’
B: ‘No, he wasn’t / Yes, he was’.

3. A: ‘Will you (= Apakah Anda akan) be back (kata sifat) (= kembali) again soon?’
B: ‘No, I won’t (will not) / Yes, I will’.

4. A: ‘Have you (= Apakah Anda sudah / telah) been here (keterangan tempat) since yesterday
/ since the seminar began (verb II)?’
B: ‘Yes, I have / No, I haven’t (have not)’. (Saya masih berada di sini)

5. A: ‘Has he been here (keterangan tempat) since yesterday / since the seminar began
(verb II)?’
B: ‘Yes, he has / No, he hasn’t (has not)’. (Ia masih berada di sini)

6. A: ‘Have you been a computer programmer (kata benda) for a long time?’
B: ‘Yes, I have / No I haven’t’. (= Saya masih menjadi seorang pemrogram komputer)

7. A: ‘Had he been a manager for a long time before he retired (verb II) (= pension)?’
B: ‘Yes, he had / No he hadn’t (had not)’. (Ia sudah tidak menjadi seorang manager)

Kalimat Tanya dengan Kata Tanya
1. A: ‘Where were you yesterday?’
B: ‘I wasn’t there yesterday, but I was in the branch office’.

2. A: ‘Why was he absent from work last Monday?’
B: ‘He was absent from work last Monday, because he was ill (kata sifat). Now he is in Sarjito hospital’.

3. A: ‘When will you be back again?’
B: ‘I’II (I will) be back again soon / in ten minutes’.

4. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) have you been here?’
B: ‘I have been here for two days’.

5. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) have you been a computer programmer?’
B: ‘I have been a computer programmer for about (= kira-kira) half a year (a half year)’.

6. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) has he been a computer programmer?’
B: ‘He has been a computer programmer for about (= kira-kira) half a year’.

7. A: ‘How long (=Berapa lama) had he been a manager before he retired (verb II)?’
B: ‘He had been a manager for years before he retired’.

Penggunaan Kata Kerja Penuh Selain Be dalam Tenses

Simple Present Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang bersifat umum, contoh:

Computers do your tasks very quickly.
In Jogja, some shops open at nine a.m. and close at nine p.m., and other shops open at the same hour but close at four p.m.
In Jakarta, most employees work for five days a week and they don’t work on Saturdays and on Sundays
In Indonesia, most work begins at seven a.m. and finishes at four p.m.
What time do shops open in your country and what time does work begin at your office?

Untuk sesuatu yang bersifat tetap, contoh:

The girl comes from Australia. She lives with a relative of hers (her relative) at 19 Jl Ki Ageng Pemanahan, Yogyakarta. She studies Information Technology (IT) at Amikom College. Besides she studies at the College at the day time, she also works part-time at a hotel in the city at night / in the night. She is very young, but she doesn’t live on her family.

Untuk kebiasaan pada waktu sekarang dengan Adverbials of Frequency: usually (= biasanya), always (= selalu), often / frequently (= sering), sometimes (= kadang-kadang), seldom / rarely (= jarang), hardly ever (= hampir tidak pernah), never (= tidak pernah), contoh:

We always delete unimportant files.
She cleans the disk drive every day / once a week.

Untuk waktu yang akan datang dengan kata kerja tertentu: begin / start, leave, arrive, contoh:

His exams begin next month.
The plane leaves at 7:30 a.m.
Untuk tulisan dalam cerita fiktif: novel dan sebagainya.

Present Continuous Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada waktu sekarang atau pada waktu berbicara, contoh:
Please turn of the radio. I am trying to concentrate on my work. (= Saya sedang mencoba / berusaha berkonsentrasi pada pekerjaan saya)
Please don’t make so much noise. I am studying.

Untuk sesuatu yang bersifat sementara, contoh:

I am staying here until I can find an apartment.
Untuk suatu perubahan, contoh:
The price of a computer is going up.
His English is getting better.

Untuk sesuatu yang telah diputuskan / telah direncanakan akan dilakukan, contoh:

This is my schedule for next week:
I am making reports on Monday. (Future Tense)
I am attending the meeting on Tuesday. (Future Tense)

I am making reports. (Future Tense)
(= I am going to make reports)
(= I will be making reports)
(= I intend to make reports)

Present Continuous Tense untuk sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada waktu sekarang; Past Continuous Tense (untuk sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau), dan Future Continuous Tense untuk sesuatu yang sedang terjadi pada waktu yang akan datang. Contoh:

John works every morning from 9 o’clock till noon. It is 10 o’clock now. He is working (Present Continuous Tense). At 10 o’clock yesterday he was working (Past Continuous Tense). At 10 o’clock tomorrow he will be working (Future Continuous Tense).

John is an industrious man. He works in a shop. The shop opens at 9 o’clock and closes at 5.30. At 10 o’clock yesterday he was working. It’s 10 o’clock now. He is working. At 10 o’clock tomorrow he will be working. He is never absent from work.

Future Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang diputuskan akan dilakukan pada saat berbicara, contoh:

I think
I suppose
I am sure
I bet
I guess
Probably / possibly /
maybe / perhaps

I don’t think he will come. (= Saya pikir ia tidak akan datang)
Do you think he will come? (= Apakah Anda pikir / Apakah menurut
pendapat Anda ia akan datang?)
I will not come to the meeting. (= Saya tidak akan datang ke rapat itu)
(Penolakan)
I will not be coming to the meeting. (= Saya tidak akan datang ke rapat
itu) (Tidak ada kesempatan)
Will you come to the meeting? (=Maukah Anda datang ke rapat itu?)
Will you be coming to the meeting? (= Apakah Anda akan datang ke
rapat itu?)
Shall we go there now? (= Bagaimana kalau kita pergi ke sana sekarang?)
(= What about going there now?)
(= How about going there now?)
(= Let’s (Let us) go there now?) (= Mari kita pergi ke sana sekarang) (Jawabannya: Yes, let’s / No, let’s not)

Simple Past Tense
Untuk memberikan pernyataan atau pertanyaan pada waktu sekarang mengenai sesuatu yang terjadi atau dilakukan pada waktu lampau atau sebelumnya, dan tidak berhubungan dengan waktu sekarang, contoh:

+ ‘He calculated (verb II) the expense yesterday / last Monday / two hours ago / this morning (= pagi tadi) / in 1996 / for two hours’.
(calculate – calculated – calculated)
– ‘He didn’t calculate the expense’.
? Did he calculate the expense? ‘Yes, he did’ / ‘No, he didn’t’.

This is a list of things I did yesterday:
7:30 8:30 typed letters
8:30 9:30 processed data
9:30 10:30 ….

Untuk kebiasaan pada waktu lampau dengan Adverbials of Frequency: usually, always, often, sometimes, seldom, hardly ever, never, contoh:

Ani and I used to work at the same office. She often got to work late. Her manager didn’t know she often came late because he often came late, too.

When Ani was younger (Simple Past dari penggunaan kata kerja penghubung be sebagai kata kerja penuh), She seldom / rarely went to bed before 9. She often stayed up the whole night
(= begadang) and never got up early.

Past Future Tense
Untuk sesuatu yang akan dilakukan pada waktu lampau, contoh:

Yesterday I called at Jono’s office. When I got there, he would go out with his pretty, new secretary.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense dan Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense untuk sesuatu yang dilakukan atau yang terjadi dalam rentang waktu dari waktu lampau sampai sekarang, dan sekarang masih terus berlangsung. Dengan kata lain, dalam bahasa Indonesia Present Perfect Continuous Tense bisa sama dengan mengatakan sudah / telah / pada waktu sekarang dengan rentang waktu. Present Perfect Tense untuk sesuatu yang sudah / telah terjadi atau yang sudah / telah / baru saja selesai dilakukan pada waktu sekarang. Dengan kata lain, dalam bahasa Indonesia Present Perfect Tense bisa sama dengan mengatakan sudah / telah / baru saja pada waktu sekarang tanpa rentang waktu. Contoh:

Johno is reading a book. He began reading (the book) two hours ago. He is on page 52. He has been reading for two hours (Present Perfect Continuous Tense). He has read (verb III) 52 pages (Present Perfect Tense). (read – read – read)

Johno is studying English. He began studying (English) six years ago. He has been studying English for six years. He has read a lot of English books.

Jono began studying IT at Amikom College in 1999. Now he is still studying at the College. So far, he has been studying there for about nine years, but he has not completed / finished his study yet.

Untuk sesuatu yang baru saja dilakukan dan masih ada tanda tanda akibat perbuatan yang telah dilakukan, contoh:

I am very tired. I have been working hard all day / lately / in the last few days / for hours / since last Monday / so far / up to now
/ until now.

Bandingkan!
I lived in Yogyakarta for two years. – I have been living in Yogyakarta for
two years. (= I have lived in
Yogyakarta for two years)
I mailed the letter yesterday. – I have mailed the letter.
Did you see Johno this morning? – Have you seen Johno this morning?

This is the first time I have driven a car.
It is time we went home.
Future Perfect Tense (Bentuk yang akan datang Present Perfect Tense)
Contoh:

Perawan always goes to bed at 11:00. Joko is going to visit her at 11:30 this evening. When Joko arrives, Perawan will have gone to bed.
By (= menjelang) the end of this year he will have graduated from Amikom College.

Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Bentuk yang akan datang Present Perfect Continuous Tense)
Contoh:

By the end of this year he will have been studying at Amikom College for two years.

Past Perfect Tense / Simple Past Tense
Contoh:

By 1999 he had graduated (Past Perfect Tense) / graduated (Simple Past Tense) from Amikom College.

BANDINGKAN
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
+ SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
+
am
is was been work worked worked
come came come
are were write wrote written

I am from Japan.
I
You
The students come from Japan.
He
The student is
You
The students are He
The student comes
? ?
Apakah Is he from Japan? Apakah Does he come from Japan?
Are you Do you
Yes, I am / No, I am not. Yes, I do / No, I don’t (do not).
Where are you from? Where do you come from?

SIMPLE PAST TENSE
+ SIMPLE PAST TENSE
+
am
is was been call called called
go went gone
are were read read read

I
He
The student was in Japan yesterday. I
He
The student
You
The students went to Japan Yesterday.
You
The students were
? ?
Apakah Was he in
Japan yesterday? Apakah Did he
you go to
Japan Yesterday?
Were you
Yes, I was / No, I wasn’t (was not). Yes, I did / No, I didn’t (did not).
Where were you yesterday?

I didn’t go to
Japan Yesterday?
Where did you go

EXERCISES

Part A
Directions: put each of the verbs in parentheses in its correct form.

1. The functions of management (be) planning, organizing, controlling, and leading.
2. There (be) someone on the phone for you.
3. Last Monday Joko (be) absent from work because he (be) sick. Since then, he (be) absent five times.
4. There (be) a large number of demonstrators in the square two days ago.
5. The lecturer (be) on the way to this campus now, and he (be) here in five minutes.
6. There (be) a meeting in Citra room tomorrow morning.
7. Perawan (be) a civil servant since she (be) twenty-five.
8. (the staff members / be) busy with extra work up to now?
9. The effect of the use of computers on vast unemployment among clerical workers (not be) noticeable until now.
10. There (be) a lot of development in their country since 1989.
11. Before his arrival at the airport, they (be) there for about an hour.

Part B
Directions: put each of the verbs in parentheses in its correct form, and complete the dialogue correctly.

A. (you / be) (1) present at the meeting yesterday?
B. No, … (2).
A. Where (you / be) (3) then?
B. I (be) (4) in the laboratory.

A, (Jono / be) (5) absent from work last Monday?
B. Yes, … (6).
A. Why (he / be) (7) absent then?
B. Because … (8).

A. May I see Mr. Jono?
B. Of course you may, but he (be) (9) out.
A. When (he / be) (10) back?
B. He (be) (11) back soon.
A. (Mr. Joni / be) (12) a systems analyst?
B. Yes, … (13).
A. How long (he / be) (14) a systems analyst?
B. For about ten years.

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