GERUND

GERUND

A. Bentuk Gerund
1. Dalam bentuk positif
a. Dari kata kerja
1). Dalam bentuk aktif (= me …)
Contoh:
doing (= mengerjakan)
 do
having done (= sudah / telah
mengerjakan) (do – did – done)
typing
 type
having typed (type – typed – typed)
scanning (= menyeken)
 scan
having scanned (scan – scanned –
scanned)

lying (= terletak / berbaring /berbohong)
 lie
having lain (lie – lay – lain)
laying (= meletakkan)
 lay
having laid (= lay – laid – laid)

2). Dalam bentuk pasif (= di …)
Contoh:
being done (= dikerjakan)
 do
having been done (= sudah / telah
dikerjakan)
b. Dari kata sifat
Contoh:
 honest being honest (= jujur)
 late being late
c. Dari kata benda
Contoh:
 a hacker being a hacker (= heker)
2. Bentuk negatif
Contoh:
 do not doing (= tidak mengerjakan)
 come not coming
 send not sending

B. Penggunaan Gerund
1. Sebagai subyek
Contoh:
 Making a site (= situs) about movies is my hobby.

 Finding information on the World Wide Web needs

an Internet search engine.

 Managing (= mengontrol) the computer’s recources
is an important function of the operating system.
 Adding (= menambah) more memory lets
(= memungkinkan) your computer work faster.
 Being honest at all times is not always easy.
 Learning to use a computer is not as difficult as learning to program (= memprogram).
 Not doing one’s work properly may be worse than
not doing it all.
 His rushing (= tindakannya yang tergesa-gesa)
to complete the report by the deadline (= batas waktu) was in vain (= sia-sia).
 John’s talking about the problem did not seem to clarify (= memperjelas) the issue (= pokok persoalan).

2. Sebagai pelengkap subyek
Contoh:
 My hobby is making a site about movies.

 His job is fixing (= memperbaiki) computers.
 My task (= tugas) is improving (= memperbaiki) them.
 Another function of the operating system is executing
(= melaksanakan) and providing (menyediakan
/ memberikan) services for application software.

3. Sebagai obyek kata kerja tertentu
Contoh:
 They like browsing (= mencari informasi di Internet).

 I started / began learning to use a computer
when I was six.
 He has just finished downloading music
from the Internet.
 I enjoy surfing (= melihat-lihat) the Web in my spare
/ leisure / free time.
 She hates / dislikes chatting in a chat room.
 Why do you put off (postpone) (= menunda) sending
an e-mail about English lesson to some of your friends?
 We will have to consider (= mempertimbangkan) using another company if they can’t provide the sofware we need.
 Does your job involve (= menyangkut / mengharuskan) meeting a lot of people?
 They kept (on) (= terus) asking us questions
at that meeting.
 How long will you continue (= go on) working?
 He advised / suggested / recommed consulting
a computer security expert.
 Would you mind (= berkenan kiranya Anda) turning
the radio down, please?
 She denied (= menyangkal) stealing (having stolen) any money from the cash register.
 He admitted (= mengaku) hacking (having hacked) into (= membobol / telah membobol) a network system.
 Now she regrets (= menyesal) not studying harder when she was in college.
 I think people must stop (give up) attemping (trying)
to gain (= memperoleh) unauthorized (= yang tidak sah) access to network systems.
 You can avoid (= menghindari) being hacked into
(= dibobol (oleh heker) by installing firewalls.
 I clearly remembered shutting down (= menghentikan aktifitas) the system before I left, but I forgot to switch off (= memutus arus listrik).
 Do you think this PC needs upgrading
(to be upgraded)?

4. Sebagai obyek preposisi
Contoh:
 Quite a few (= cukup banyak) of them are interested
in studying Information Technology.
 Has Tom succeeded in finding a job yet?
 Computers have made radical changes in preparing income tax returns (= formulir pajak penghasilan).
 Computers are electronic machines for processing data.
 A password is a mechanism for identifying
the computer-user and allowing (= memperkenalkan
/ memungkinkan) access.
 The procedure for creating a new file is very simple.
 The main reason for installing more memory is to allow the computer to process data faster.
 Designers can offer (= menawarkan/memberikan) good ideas for making your website brighter.
 He apologized for (= minta maaf karena) keeping me waiting.

 This morning I apologized to my manager for coming
to work late.
 He thanked (= mengucapkan terima kasih kepada) me for helping him.
 A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs
for performing (= melakukan) various tasks on a computer.
 Please forgive me for not sending you an e-mail.
 The worker was fired (= dipecat) for not coming to work on time.
 I am sorry for being late.
 My student is thinking of / about applying for (= minta_ a government grant (= uang bantuan) to continue
his research.
 I am thinking about applying for (= melamar) the post advertised (= yang diiklankan) in yesterday’s KR newspaper.
 What are the advantages (= keuntungan-keuntungan)
of having a laptop?
 Computers have a way of communicating
with the persons(s) using them.
 The director stressed (= menekankan) the importance
of (= pentingnya) keeping (= merahasiakan)
the computer access codes among us managers.
 The young man was suspected of (= dicurigai) hacking (having hacked) into a network system.
 The police suspected (= mencurigai) the young man
of hacking into (having hacked) into a computer system.
 The arrested (= yang telah ditangkap) man was accused of (= dituduh) being a hacker.
 I am looking forward to (= menanti-nanti) hearing
from (= mendengar kabar dari) you soon.
 I look forward to inputting data by voice
instead of (= daripada) using a keyboard.
 He upgraded his old PC instead of buying a new one.
 Jane prefers (= lebih suka) doing nothing
to (= daripada) working.
 He objected to (= menolak / berkeberatan) paying expensive telephone calls for Internet access.
 I am used to (accustomed to) (= terbiasa / biasa) typing with ten fingers.
 It took me (= Saya membutuhkan waktu) a long time
to get used to (= membiasakan diri / menjadi terbiasa) wearing contact lenses.
 He can’t get used to logging on with a password.
 You can find information on the Internet by using
a search engine.
 By fixing the computers himself, he saved
a lot of money.
 Start the search by clicking on their Find button.
 The police tracked down (= melacak dan menangkap) the hacker by talking to his friends and acquaintances
(= kenalan-kenalan).
 Don’t switch off without shutting down your PC.
 He tried to hack into the system without knowing
the password.
 Computers can’t do anything without being programmed (= diprogram) correctly.
 They can’t carry out their plans without being supported (= didukung) with the fund (= dana (itu)).
 Soon after talking off, the plane crashed (= jatuh).
 The entire (=seluruh) program should be tested
after being written (= ditulis).
 After being interviewed (= diwawancarai) for the job, you will be required (= diharuskan) to take an aptitude test (= test bakat / kecerdasan).
 Read the instructions carefully before installing your PC.
 Before coding a program, a programmer should design the program by creating a flowchart or by using another method of program design.
 I am not tired in spite of (= meskipun) working hard
all day.
 He went to work in spite of feeling sick.
 I couldn’t sleep despite (= meskipun) being very tired.
5. Dalam frasa benda (= noun phrase)
Dalam frasa ini, bentuk gerund yang digunakan hanya yang berakhiran – ing. Gerund dalam bentuk perfect (= telah…), pasif (= di…), dan negatif (= tidak…) tidak digunakan.
a. Dalam pola the + gerund + of phrase
Contoh:
 the writing of a program (= penulisan (suatu) program);
 the making of plans (= pembuatan rencana-rencana).
Dalam pola diatas, kata kerja yang tidak menunjukkan tindakan tidak digunakan dan digantikan dengan kata benda abstrak (abstract noun).
Contoh :
 the needing of … (salah);
 the need (s) of … (benar).
Dalam pola diatas, kata ganti (it) tidak digunakan dalam of phrase.
Contoh :
 the writing of it (salah);
 the writing of the program (benar) (= penulisan program (itu)).
b. Dalam pola noun + gerund
Contoh:
 data processing (= pengolahan data);
 computer progamming (= pemrograman komputer).
c. Dalam frasa benda pada posisi kata sifat
(= adjective) sebelum kata benda (= noun)
Contoh:
 a writing-table (a table for writing) (= (sebuah) meja tulis);
 a waiting-room (a room for waiting) (= (sebuah) ruang tunggu).

6. Setelah ungkapan tertentu
Contoh:
 It is no use (no good) (= tak ada gunanya) asking her – she doesn’t know anything.
 It is a waste of time (= membuang waktu saja) playing computer games.
 It is a waste of money (= membuang uang saja) buying things you don’t need.
 It isn’t worth (tidak layak) fixing (memperbaiki) such a PC (= PC semacam itu).
 Such a PC isn’t worth fixing (= diperbaiki).
 Do you think this book is worth reading (=dibaca)?

COORDINATE CONJUNCTION

Coordinate conjunction dapat digunakan menggabungkan unsur yang paralel dalam kalimat :
– and
– He and I will serve on (= menjadi anggota) the board of directors.
– My supervosir caled him and me to meet in his office.
– Just between you and me, Tom is uncertain about whether to accept the offer to manage the business.
– The date and the time of the meeting have not been set.
– The growth and development of our company is phenomenal.

- John’s and Jane’s reports are quite different form each other.
– A mainframe is large and expensive.
– He tested and debugged the entire program last week.
– The programmer presented his new sofware package to the supervisor and to the department manager.
– All aspiring computer analysts are trained in inputing new data and in utilizing appropriate sofware to interpret the data.
Or : All aspiring computer analysts are trained to input newa data and in to
utilize appropriate software to interpret the data.
– The ability to think logically and to calculate accurately is important for an

accountant.
– Screening the applicants and interviewing the best candidates require considerate

time.
– but
– A palmtop is small but powerful.
– She tried hard but didn’t succeed.

- or
– The sofware or the computers are crucial.

- They usually advertise their companies on the Internet or in newspapers.

CORRELATIVE CONJUCTION

Correlative conjuction dapat digunakan menggabungkan unsur yang paralel dalam kalimat.
both … and
The manager is out.
His secretary is out.
Both the manager and his secretary are out.
(both + noun, and + noun)
He sells used PCs.
He buys used PCs.
He both sells and buys used PCs.
(both + verb, and + verb)

She speaks English.
She speaks Japanese.
She speaks both English and Japanese.
(both + noun, and + noun)

Neither … or
The systems analyst is not in the laboratory.
His assistant is not in the laboratory.
Neither the systems analyst nor his assistant is in the laboratory.

(neither + noun; nor + noun)

I cannot trust the manager.
I cannot trust his secretary.
I can trust neither the manager nor his secretary.
(neither + noun; nor + noun)

The instructor did not speak slowly.
The isntructor did not speak cleary.
The instructor spoke neither slowly nor clearly.
(neither + adverb of manner; nor + adverb of manner)

not only … but also / not only … but … as well
A computer programmer writes programs.
A computer programmer tests programs.
A computer programmer not only writes but also tests programs.
(not only + verb; but also + verb)

They study IT.
They study English.
They study not only IT but also English.
(not only + noun; but also + noun)

The microchip technology has put chips into computers.
The microchip technology has put chips into cars.
The microchip technology has put chips not only into computers but also into cars.
(not only + preposition; but also + preposition)

either … or
You should upload the information.
I should upload the informnation.
Either you or I should upload the information.
(either + personal pronoun; or + personal pronoun)

He must pay the bill at once.
He must return the goods.
He must either pay the bill at once or return the goods.
(either + verb; or + verb)

COMPOUND SENTENCE

Compound Sentence :
– kalimat yang mempunyai 2 atau lebih independent clauses;
– kalimat yang menggunakan kata gabung :
– and
– but dan synonimnya : yet, nevertheless, whereas, still, however
– neither … nor
– both … and
– not only … but alsao / not only … but … as well
– either … or.
Clause :
– kalimat dalam kalimat
Independent Clauses :
– clause yang mempunyai makna yang lengkap;
– clause yang dapat berdiri sendiri / tidak tergantung pada clauses lainnya.

and
The manager is out. (Simple Sentence)
S P
His secretary is absent. (Simple Sentence)
S P
The manager is out and his secretary is absent. (Compound Sentence)

Independent Clause Independent Clause

but
He tired hard.
He didn’t succeed.
He tried hard but he didn’t succeed.

both … and
The manager is out.
His secretary is out.
Both the manager and his secretary are out.
(Both + noun; and + noun)

He sells used PCs.
He buys used PCs.
He both sells and buys used PCs.
(both + verb; and + verb)

She writes systems programs.
She writes applications programs.
She writes both systems and applications programs.
(both + noun; and + noun)
neither … nor
The systems analyst is not in the laboratory.
His assistant is not in the laboratory.
Neither the systems analyst nor his assistant is in the laboratory.
Neither the systems analyst nor his assistant is in the laboratory.
(Neither + noun; nor + noun)

I cannot trust the manager.
I cannot trust his secretary.
I can trust neither the manager nor his secretary.
(neither + noun; nor + noun)

The instructor did not speak slowly.
The instructor did not speak clearly.
The instructor spoke neither slowly nor cleary
(neither + adverb of manner; nor + adverb of manner)

not only .. but also / not only … but … as well
A computer programmer writes programs.
A computer programmer test programs.
A computer programmer not only writes but also tests programs.
(not only + verb; but also + verb)

They study IT.
They study English.
They study not olny IT but also English.
(not only + noun; but also + noun)

The microchip technology has put chips into computers.
The microchip technology has put chips into cars.
The microchip technology has put chips not only into computers but also into cars.
(not only + preposition; but also + preposition)

either … or
You should upload the information.
I should upload the information.
Either you or I should upload the information.
(Either + personal pronoun; or + personal pronoun)

He must pay the bill at once.
He must return the goods.
He must either pay the bill at once or return the goods.
(either + verb; or + verb)

COMPLEX SENTENCE

Complex sentence adalah kalimat yang memiliki :
– Independent Clause (IC) / Main Clause (MC) dan
– Dependent Clause (DC) / Sub(ordinate) Clause (SC).
– IC / MC adalah klausa yang :
– memiliki arti yang lengkap dan
– dapat berdiri sendiri / tidak tergantung pada klausa lainnya.
– DC /SC adalah clausa yang :
– tidak memiliki arti yang lengkap dan
– Tidak dapat berdiri sendiri / tergantung pada IC / MC.

Adjective Clause (AC)
– Adjective (= kata sifat)adalah kata yang menerangkan kata benda (= noun).
– Jadi AC adalah klausa yang :
– menerangkan kata benda dan
– Menduduki fungsi DC / SC.
– Relative clause (RC) mereupakan istilah lainnya AC
– Kata benda yang diterangkan oleh AC dan selalu berada di depan AC disebut Noun Antecedent (NA).
– NA dapat berupa :
– person, thing, place, time, dan reason.
– Dalam AC terdapat Relative Pronoun (RP) dan Relative Adverb (RA).
– RP meliputi :
– Who, whom, which / that (yang dapat juga diterjemahkan dengan … yang …), dan whose / of which (= … yang … nya …).
– RA meliputi :
– where, (= tempat / dimana), when (=ketika), dan why (= mengapa).
– Fungsi RP
– Sebagai Subyek (S)
– RP diikuti oleh Predikat (P) dan tidak dapat dihilangkan.
– Sebagai Obyek (O) kata kerja
– RP diikuti oleh S dan dapat dihilangkan.
– Sebagai Obyek Preposisi (OP)
– RP diikuti oleh S da didahului oleh preposisi serta tidak dapat dihilangkan kecuali bila preposisi diletakkan setelah predikatnya.

- Sebagai Possessive Adjective (PA)
– RP menggantikan possessive adjective his, her, their, its, dan sebagainya serta tidak dapat dihilangkan.
– Pemakaian RP
– Who dipakai bila NA person dan RP sebagai S kata kerja.
– Whom dipakai bila NA person dan RP sebagai O kata kerja dan preposisi.
– Which / that dipakai bila NA thing dan RP sebagai S dan O kata kerja serta preposisi.
– Whose dipakai bila NA person dan digunakan menggantikan PA his, her, their, dan sebagainya.
– Of Which dipakai bila NA thing dan digunakan menggantikan PA its, their, dan sebagainya.
Catatan :
– That tersbeut tidak dipakai bila RP sebagai OP yang diletakkan di depan RP.
– That tidak dipakai dalam non defining AC. (Lihat non defining AC)
– Pemakaian RA
– Where dipakai bila NA place.
– When dipakai bila NA time.
– Why dipakai nila NA reason.
– Tipe AC
– Non defining / non restrictive / non essential AC
– AC dipisahkan dengan koma.
– AC hanya bersifat tambahan dan bila dihilangkan arti MC sebelumnya memang sudah jelas.
– NA bersifat tertentu.
– Jumlah NA tidak lebih dari yang ada.
– Defining / restrictive / essential AC merupakan kebailkan type AC di atas.
– Contoh AC
– I know the technician. He is fixing your laptop. (Two simple sentences)
S P O S P O
– I know THE TECHNICIAN who is fixing your laptop. (Complex sentence)
S P O S P O

- The lady is my secretary.
She is typing in the room.
S P adjunct
THE LADY who is typing in the room is my secretary.
S S P Adjunct P

- She paid the man. She had tired him.
S P O S P O
– She paid THE MAN whom she had hired
S P O O S P

(= She paid THE MAN she had hired)

- She paid the man. She had borrowed the money from him.
S P O S P DO IO

- She paid THE MAN from whom she had borrowed the money.
S P O IO S P DO

( = She paid THE MAN whom she had borrowed the money from )
( = She paid THE MAN she had borrowed the money from )
– The manager has just called me.
S P O
His secretary offered me a job yesterday.

- The manager whose secretary offered me a job yesterday has just called me.
S S P IO DO adjunct P O

- Input and output are handled by machines. The machines are called I/O devices.
Input and output are handled by MACHINES which (or that) are called I/O devices.
– The data are called the input. The data are presented to the computer.
THE DATA which (or that) are presented to the computer are called the input.
– The economic activities make up the economic system. People undertake these economic activities.
THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES which (or that) people undertake make up the economic system.
( = THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES people undertake make up the economic system)
– The office is a long way from his house. He works at the office.
THE OFFICE at which he works is a long way from his house.
( = THE OFFICE which he works at is a long way from his house)
( = THE OFFICE that he works at is a long way from his house)
( = THE OFFICE he works at is a long way from his house)
(= THE OFFICE where he works at is a long way from his house)
– The laptop is mine. Its colour is grey.
THE LAPTOP, of which the colour is grey, is mine. (Br.E)
THE LAPTOP is mine. The colour of the laptop is grey.
THE LAPTOP, the colour of which is grey, is mine. (Am.E)
THE LAPTOP, whose colour is grey, is mine. (Informal)
– Do you remember THE YEAR when you began working at this company?
– I want to know THE REASON why she doesn’t like this job.
– TOM, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job.
THE LADY whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job.

Both of / neither of / either of + relative pronoun
– I have two brothers. Both of them major in IT.
I have TWO BROTHERS, both of whom major in IT.
I have TWO BROTHERS, neither of whom majors in IT.
I have TWO BROTHERS, either of whom majors in IT.
– He has two Pcs. Both of them are sophisticated.
– He has two Pcs, both of which are sophisticated.
– He has two Pcs, neither of which is sophisticated.
– He has two Pcs, either of which is majors in IT.
– TEN PEOPLE, most of whom were very qualified, applied for the job.
– Tom made A NUMBER OF SUGGESTIONS, most of which were very helpful.
– They gave us LOT OF INFORMATION, most of which was very useful.

\NOUN CLAUSE

- Clause ( = klausa) : kalimat dalam kalimat.
– Noun : kata benda
– Noun Clause : klausa yang berfungsi sebagai / menduduki fungsi kata benda.

Contoh
– His remark was quite true. (Simple Sentence)
S(Noun) P
– What he said was quite true. (Complex Sentence)
S P
S P

- Introductory Conjuction meliputi :
– wh – questions
– how
– that ( = bahwa)
– if / wether ( = apakah)

Fungsi Noun Clause
– Noun Clause sebagai Indirect Object
– Whether they get the money or not doesn’t concern me.
S P O
– That they have succeeded in the computer business is cuite abivious.
S P
– Noun Clause sebagai Indirect Object
– He will give the winner a prize. ( = He will give a prize to the winner).
S P IO DO S P DO IO/Prepositional
– He will give whoever wins a prize. ( = He will give a prize to whoever wins
S P IO DO S P DO IO
– We shall give these diskettes to whoever needs them later.
S P DO IO

- Noun Clause sebagai Obyek / Direct Object
– I know your name. (Simple Sentence)
S P O/DO
– I know what your name is. (Complex Sentence)
S P O/DO
– He told us how the plans should be carried out.
S P IO DO
– I asked him why he wished to work at the company.
S P IO DO
– She informed me when the meeting would be held.
S P IO DO
– We hope that you will be able to succeed in your business.
S P O/DO
– The manager determines what progress has been made toward the goal.
S P O/DO
– Noun Clause sebagai Obyek to-Infinitive
– He wanted to know why they could not cope with (= solve) the problems themselves.
– I would like to know if there is a vacancy for a computer programmer here.
– She asked me to read what she had written.

- Noun Clause sebagai Obyek Gerund
– Predicting whether you will be able to succeed in your business or not is necessary.
– We are interested in reading what be has written.

- Noun Clause sebagai Obyek Preposisi
– We are interested in what he has written.
– They could understand only few of what he explained then.
– Most of what we did was considered satisfactory.

- Noun Clause sebagai Subjective Complement (Pelengkap Subyek)
– This is what he thinks.
– The question is which method we have to use.
– The problem is how we should carry out the plans.

- Noun Clause sebagai Aposisi
– The fact that the company is almoust bankrupt is not generally know.
– We cannot conceal the fact that hew dislikes his ewployer.
– One problem, that he is competent, will be hard deal with.

- Noun Clause sebagai O/DO dalam Subjunctive
– I suggest(ed) (that) he (should) not give the report.
– I recommended(ed) (that) you (should) be there in person.
– I insist(ed) (that) she (should) speak to them.
– I demand(ed) (that) the meeting (should) be brought forward.
– I propose(d) that something (should) be done about the
problem.

- Noun Clause setelah kata it
– It is important that each student (should) fill out a registration form.
– It is vital that we (should) not permit our competitors to know our
plans.
– It is desirable that John (should) attend the conference.
– It is imperative that I (should) be punctual for the appointment.
necessary
urgent
essensial
advisable

PARTICIPLE PHRASE AS ALTERNATIVES
FOR ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

1. I HAVE NO MONEY. I will not go. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I will not go.
(= Because I have no money, I will not go.)
2. I HAVE NO MONEY. I will go. (2 Simple Sentence dengan 2 subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I will go.
( = Although I have no money, I will go.)
3. I HAVE NO MONEY. I cannot do much. (2 simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I cannot do much.
(= IF I have no money, I cannot do much.)
4. I HAVE NO MONEY. I must buy this book. (2 simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I must buy this book.)
(= While I have no money, I must buy this book.)
5. WE HAD NOTHING TO DO. We went home. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu WE)
HAVING NOTHING TO DO, We went home.
(= As we had nothing to do, we went home.)
6. HE WAS SICK. He didn’t go to school. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu HE)
BEING SICK, he didn’t go to school.
(= Because he was sick, he didin’t go to school.)
7. MY FATHER WAS SICK. I didn’t go to school. (2 Simple Sentence dengan subject yang tidak sama. Subject kalimat pertama MY FATHER dan subject kalimat kedua I)
MY FATHER BEING SICK, I didn’t go to school.
(= because my father was sick, I didn’t go to school.)
8. THEY WERE IMPRESSED BY THE YOUNG MAN’S QUALIFICATIONS. They offered him a good job. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu THEY. Kalimat pertama kalimat pasif dan kalimat kedua kalimat aktif.)
IMPRESSED BY THE YOUNG MAN’S QUALIFICATIONS, They offered him a good job.
(= Because they were impressed by the young man’s qualification, they offered him a job.)
9. SHE WAS TALKING IN THE PARK. She suddenly had a heart attack. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu SHE.)
WALKING IN THE PARK, she suddenly hahd a heart attack.
(= While she was walking in the park, she suddenly had a heart attack.)
10. HE DID NOT KNOW THE ANSWER OF THE TEST ITEM. He asked his teacher a question. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu SHE. Kalimat pertama kalimat negatif.)
NOT KNOWLING THE ANSWER OF THE TEST ITEM, he asked his teacher a question.
(= Because they did not know the answer of the test item, he asked his teacher a question.)

THE WORD “IT”

A. IT Mengacu pada Kata Sebelumnya
– We saw film last Saturday. IT was very interesting. I enjoy IT very much.
– When he had metal. IT expands. IT grows bigger than was before.
B. IT sebagai subjecy kosong
1. Waktu
– What time is IT now’ IT is six o’clock.
– What day is IT today? IT is Sunday.
2. Cuaca
– IT is fine today.
– IT is raining.
3. Suhu
– IT is 37 degrees celcius.
4. Jarak
– How far is IT to … from …?
5. Lingkungan
– IT is smoky
– IT is dirty.
6. Situasi Sekarang
– IT is a shame
– IT is awful
7. Pasang / Surut Air
– IT is high tide.
– IT is low tide.

C. Preparatory IT sebagai Subject
1. Impotance
– IT is essential TO BOOK IN ADVANCE.
– IT is important THAT HE COMES STRAIGHT TO ME WHEN SHE ARRIVES.
2. Difficulty
– IT is not easy TO GET HER TO CHANGE HER MIND.
– IT must be hard TO LIVE ON SALARY.
3. Possibility
– IT is possible TO GO BY LAND
– IT is probable THAT WE’LL BE A LITTLE LATE.
4. Usefulness
– IT is not very useful TO READ THE WHOLE BOOK.
– IT is pointless TO GO THERE ON MONDAY – there is a public holiday.
5. Normality
– IT is unusual TO SEE JOHN WITH A GIRL.
6. Time taken
– IT took me two hours TO GO HOME LAST NIGHT.
7. Emotional reaction
– IT is interesting TO SEE DIFFERENT CULTURES AND WAY OF LIFE.
– IT is really astonishing THAT SHE REFUSED TO TALK TO YOU.
– IT shocked me THAT JOHN DIDN’T TELL WHERE HE WAS.
8. Truth
– Is IT true THAT SHE IS ILL?
9. Convenience
– Will IT suit you TO COME TOMORROW EVENING ?
10. Ideas coming into one’s head
– IT occurred to me THAT SHE MIGHT HAVE FORGOTTON THE DATE.
11. Appearance
– IT appears THAT JOHN MIGHT CHANGE HIS MIND.
– IT seems obvious THAT WE CAN’T GO ON LIKE THIS.
12. IT dengan “ for + object + infinitive “
– IT is pointless for + all of us + TO GO THERE. One will be enough.
– IT is essential for + the papers + TO BE READY BEFORE FRIDAY.
– IT is a must for + us + TO PERFORM OUR DUTY.
13. IT dengan ing-forms
– IT is no good PRETENDING TO BE INTELEGENT.
– IT is (there is) no use CRYING OVER SPILT MILK. Let by gone be gone.
– Is IT (is there) any use INFORMING THEM ABOUT YOUR PLANS.
– IT is no use ASKING HER – he doesn’t know anything.
– IT is useless MAKING SUCH A PLAN WITHOUT BEING SUPPORTED BY ADEQUATE PLAN.
14. IT dengan adjectives of urgency
– IT is important THAT EVERYBODY SHOULD BE TOLD THE FACTS. (British)
IT is important THAT EVERYBODY BE TOLD THE FACTS. (American)
15. Di samping IT dengan THAT-CLAUSES diatas, ada juga IT dengan clauses lainnya yang ditandai dengan WHO, WHICH, WHETHER, WHEN, WHAT, AS IF / AS THOUGH. HOW MANYB / HOW MUCH dan sebagainya.
– IT was John WHO / THAT CAME ON SATURDAY. (Penekanan pada John.
– IT was on Saturday THAT JOHN CAME. (Penekanan pada on Saturday)
– IT was Joh’n dog THAT / WHICH BIT ME.
– IT doesn’t interest me WHETHER YOU SUCCEED OR NOT.
– IT doesn’t matter WHEN YOU ARRIVE – just come when you can.
– IT wasn’t very clear THAT SHE MEANT.

D. Preparatory sebagai Object
– I think IT important THAT WE SHOULD KEEP CALM.
– I find IT difficult TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT ANYTHING SERIOUS.

A. Supply the correct forms of verbs in parentheses.
1. The invention of new types of memory devices never (cease).
2. The issuer of credits card (provide) a short-term loan to the cardholder.
3. The main question on most people’s minds (be) why e-mail security is necessary.
4. The best in most widely used type of encrytion (utilize) a pair of mathematically related number.
5. Companies with excess computing capacity (be) able to market information services as a new business opportunity.
6. A review of the procedures (require) our attention.
7. Her letter, together with the enclosures, (be) here.
8. Any one of the applicants (be) capable of doing it.
9. Fifty dollars (be) the amount he owes.
10. The director, not the staff members, (be ) late every morning last week.
11. The computer programmer, as well as his assistants, (be) busy lately.
12. He, not I, (be) going to the interview the applicant.
13. Six years before retirement (seem) like a long time.
14. Manpower, rather than natural recources, (be) more important.
15. This PC, unlike those ones, (be) really powerful.
16. (Be) John or Jane coming to the meeting?
17. Not the staff members but the director (be) wrong.
18. The computers or the sofware (be) crucial.

B. Put each of the verbs in parentheses in the following sentences in its correct from.
1. Microsoft (release) Access in 1991.
2. Database processing (change) continuously since 1970.
3. There (be) a lot of advances in computer technology since 1945.
4. By 1990, some vendors (develop) object-oriented DBMS products.
5. By the end of this year, they (work) on Information Management for approximately eight months.

C. Supply the correct passive voice forms of the verbs in parentheses to complete the following sentences.
1. Multi-user databases (manage) by a piece of software called a database management system.
2. Fiber-0ptic cable (install) on a large scale since 1980.
3. The order (send) before the cancellation was received.
4. Alternatively, databases can (create) from axtracts of other databases.
5. All micro DBMS products (eliminate) by Microsoft Access in the early 1990s.

Infinitive tanpa to

Bentuk Infinitive tanpa to
– Kata kerja
– Bentuk aktif

- Bentuk pasif

- Kata sifat
punctual  be punctual (= tepat waktu)
able  be able ( = dapat/mampu)
– Kata benda (kelompok kata benda)
A computer programmer  be a computer programmer
(= pemrogram komputer)
– Keterangan tempat
in the office  be in the office (= di kantor)

Penggunaan infinitive tanpa to
1. Setelah auxiliary verbs
Shall/should, will/would, can/could, may/might, must, do/does/did. & need.
Contoh :
– I / We shall/will drop you a line (= mengabari) as soos as (= segera setelah) I/we get to (= sampai di) London.
– I think the government should do something about the economy.
– At nine o’clock tomorrow, the manager will be addressing (= berpidato dalam) the business meeting.
– By the end of this year, he will have graduated from Amikom college.
– The sales meeting will be held soon; you should plan to be attendance.
– Jane will have been employed for 25 years before she retires.
– By the end of this years, he will have been studying at Amikom college for approximately two years.
– He promised he would be punctual in payment for his rent.
– I wish somebody would give me a job.
– You can get into with (= menghubungi) me by telephone at 371415.
– After the success of Windows 95, Microsoft could outsell (= menjual lebih banyak dari) any competitor.
– To improve your spoken English, we wish all of you could join us in AECC (Amikom English Conservation Club).
– Doctors may be able to operate on patients at a distance in future.
– Don’t call on him at 8:30. He may/might be expecting (= menjamu) guests.
– He may be in the office now.
– I don’t know what his occupation is. He may be a computer programmer.
– Could/Can/May I look at your newspaper? /have a light? /etc.
– You musn’t make unauthorized copies of software.
– You have been working hard all day. You must be tired.
– Do you/Does he have the courage to ask your/his employer for a raise in a pay?
– How much did you put aside (= menabung) every month while you were working abroad?
– You needn’t learn how to program in HTML (HyperText Markup Language) before designing webpages.

2. Setelah ungkapan tertentu
– You had better (= sebaiknya) mind your own business.
– As you are unemployed, you might as well (= sebaiknya) accept the job offer.
– She would rather (= lebih suka) have a laptop than a palmtop.

3. Setelah Why … ? Why not …?
– Why put off (= menunda) the plain until tomorrow ? Why not carry it out (= melaksanakan) right now?

4. Pada idiom tertentu
– I hear say (= kabarnya) the price of a computer is going up.
– It’s foolish to let slip (= melewatkan) such an opportunity.
– They made believe (= berlagak) they knew everything.
– We have to make do with (= mencukup-cukupkan dengan) the money we have.

5. Untuk pelengkap obyek
– Graphical User Interface lets you point to (= menunjuk ke) icons and click a mouse button to execute a task.
– The new director made all of the staff members work hard.
– I had them cope with (= memecahkan) the problem themselves.
– We have never known our manager lose his temper (= marah)
– I never find my assistant neglect (= mengabaikan) ghis work.
* The police found him hacking into (= membobol) a computer system.
– We heard him talk (talking) about this incident.
– I listened to them talk (talking) over (= membahas) the problem.
– She smelt something burn (burning) (= berbau sesuatu terbakar).
– I saw you peep (peeping) through (= mengintip) the window of the teaching staff room.

6. Untuk kalimat perintah
– Be careful.
– Arrange (= susunlah) the icons.
– Adjust ( = aturlah) the speaker volume.
– Shut down ( =hentikanlah aktivitas) the system.
– Debug (= hilangkan kesalahan dari) the program.
– Display (= tampilkanlah) the date.
– Click on the Find button to start the search.
– Select (= pilihlah) the appropriate programming language.
– Let’s (us) go home now.

1. Making a site about movies is my hobby.
2. Finding information on the World Wide Web needs an Internet search engine.
3. Managing the computer’s resources is an important function of the operating system.
4. Adding more memory lets your computer work faster.
5. Being honest at all times is not always easy.
6. Learning to use a computer is not as difficult as learning to program.
7. Not doing one’s work properly may be worse than not doing it all.
8. His rushing to complete the report by the deadline was in vain.
9. John’s talking about the problem did not seem to clarify the issue.

10. My hobby is making a site about movies.
11. His job is fixing computers.
12. My task is improving them.
13. Another function of the operating system is executing and providing services for application software.

14. They like browsing.
15. I started / began learning to use a computer when I was six.
16. He has just finished downloading music from the Internet.
17. I enjoy surfing the Web in my spare / leisure / free time.
18. She hates / dislikes chatting in a chat room.
19. Why do you put off (postpone) sending an e-mail about English lesson to some of your friends?
20. We will have to consider using another company if they can’t provide the software we need.
21. Does your job involve meeting a lot of people?
22. They kept (on) asking us questions at that meeting.
23. How long will you continue (= go on) working?
24. He advised / suggested / recommended consulting a computer security expert.
25. Would you mind turning the radio down, please?
26. She denied stealing (having stolen) any money from the cash register.
27. He admitted hacking (having hacked) into a network system.
28. Now she regrets not studying harder when she was in college.
29. I think people must stop (give up) attempting (trying) to gain unauthorized access to network systems.
30. You can avoid being hacked into by installing firewalls.
31. I clearly remembered shutting down the system before I left, but I forgot to switch off.
32. Do you think this PC needs upgrading (to be upgraded)?

33. Quite a few of them are interested in studying Information Technology.
34. Has Tom succeeded in finding a job yet?
35. Computers have made radical changes in preparing income tax returns.
36. Computers are electronic machines for processing data.
37. A password is a mechanism for identifying the computer-user and allowing access.
38. The procedure for creating a new file is very simple.
39. The main reason for installing more memory is to allow the computer to process data faster.
40. Designers can offer good ideas for making your website brighter.
41. He apologized for keeping me waiting.
42. This morning I apologized to my manager for coming to work late.
43. He thanked me for helping him.
44. A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs for performing various tasks on a computer.
45. Please forgive me for not sending you an e-mail.
46. The worker was fired for not coming to work on time.
47. I am sorry for being late.
48. My student is thinking of / about applying for a government grant to continue his research.
49. I am thinking about applying for the post advertised in yesterday’s KR newspaper.
50. What are the advantages of having a laptop?
51. Computers have a way of communicating with the persons(s) using them.
52. The director stressed the importance of keeping the computer access codes among us managers.
53. The young man was suspected of hacking (having hacked) into a network system.
54. The police suspected the young man of hacking into (having hacked) into a computer system.
55. The arrested man was accused of being a hacker.
56. I am looking forward to hearing from you soon.
57. I look forward to inputting data by voice instead of using a keyboard.
58. He upgraded his old PC instead of buying a new one.
59. Jane prefers doing nothing to working.
60. He objected to paying expensive telephone calls for Internet access.
61. I am used to (accustomed to) typing with ten fingers.
62. It took me a long time to get used to wearing contact lenses.
63. He can’t get used to logging on with a password.
64. You can find information on the Internet by using a search engine.
65. By fixing the computers himself, he saved a lot of money.
66. Start the search by clicking on their Find button.
67. The police tracked down the hacker by talking to his friends and acquaintances.
68. Don’t switch off without shutting down your PC.
69. He tried to hack into the system without knowing the password.
70. Computers can’t do anything without being programmed correctly.
71. They can’t carry out their plans without being supported with the fund.
72. Soon after talking off, the plane crashed.
73. The entire program should be tested after being written.
74. After being interviewed for the job, you will be required to take an aptitude test.
75. Read the instructions carefully before installing your PC.
76. Before coding a program, a programmer should design the program by creating a flowchart or by using another method of program design.
77. I am not tired in spite of working hard all day.
78. He went to work in spite of feeling sick.
79. I couldn’t sleep despite being very tired.

 the writing of a program;
 the making of plans.

 the needing of … (salah);
 the need (s) of … (benar).

 the writing of it (salah);
 the writing of the program (benar).

 data processing;
 computer progamming.

 a writing-table (a table for writing);
 a waiting-room (a room for waiting).

80. It is no use (no good) asking her – she doesn’t know anything.
81. It is a waste of time playing computer games.
82. It is a waste of money buying things you don’t need.
83. It isn’t worth fixing such a PC.
84. Such a PC isn’t worth fixing.
85. Do you think this book is worth reading?

1. To make mistakes is easy.
2. It is easy to make mistakes.
3. (For me) to do that is impossible.
4. To do that is impossible (for me).
5. It is (im)possible (for me / you / him / her / us / them) to do that.
6. It is (un)likely (for them) to postpone the meeting.
7. It is (un)necessary (for us) to create web pages for a personal website.
8. It took him ten months to conduct such research.
9. It takes me ten minutes to get to (my) work.
10. It will take you ten hours to get there.
11. It takes time to write programs in high-level languages.

12. Their ambition is to obtain good jobs.
13. The role of the operating system is to communicate directly with the hardware.
14. One of the key functions of the operating system is to establish a user interface.
15. One of the important functions of the computer is to process large amounts of data quickly.

16. I want to upgrade my computer.
17. You seem to be enjoying the film.
18. The survey appears to have revealed some interesting facts.
19. He seems to be happy.
20. She wants to be a systems analyst.
21. They promised to be here at six o’clock.
22. He happened to be out when I called him.
23. She tends to talk too much.
24. How old were you when you learned to operate a computer?
25. He agreed to lend me Rp1000000.
26. She refused to comment on his involvement.
27. He forgot to bring me the PC magazine.
28. I always remember to back up important files.
29. There were a lot of traffic-jams this morning, but we managed to get to (my) work on time.
30. The operating system failed to boot although she had tried to start up the computer several times.
31. He is lazy. He needs to work harder.
32. If you want to link your PC with a mainframe, you will need to install a network.
33. We are planning to install LAN (Local Area Network).
34. They would like to see the manager.
35. Quite few of the companies can afford to purchase a mainframe.
36. I never thought to see you here.
37. I prefer not to start early.
38. I tried to get in touch with the manager this morning, but I missed him again.
39. My cheap PC seems to be (just) as good as John’s expensive one.
40. The professional programmer wants to create and sell a program for use in language learning.

41. She asked me to fix her PC.
42. They advised me to accept the offer of the job.
43. The Help facility enables users to get advice on most problems.
44. Windows allows you to display two different folders at the same time.
45. Voice recognition software helps disabled users (to) access computers.
46. The college lecturer wanted his students to learn the principles of programming.
47. They would like us to co-operate with them.

48. We are very sorry not to be able to give you a definite reply in respect of the matter.
49. He was surprised to learn how much he had spent.

50. Do you think he is good enough to become our manager?
51. This question is too difficult (for me) to answer.

52. I have a lot of work to do.
53. We have some important business to take care of.
54. All user requests to access a database are handled by the database management system.
55. I don’t have the courage to ask my employer for a raise in pay.
56. The power to help others depends on the power to help oneself.
57. The next question to consider (to be considered) was the crucial one.
58. I need a box to hold my CDs.
59. I don’t have enough money to buy a notebook computer.

60. They went to Bandung to do business.
61. He came to Surabaya to look for a job.
62. He uploaded a website to advertise his travel company.
63. He moved to Jakarta (in order / so as) to have a better opportunity to find a good position.
64. She subscribes to many different PC magazines and reads them all to keep up with the development of computer technology.

65. The problem is where to get the money.
66. He consulted his stockbroker on how to invest his money.
67. The computer operator showed me how to insert graphics into a document.
68. The office manager will explain to the new secretary where to work and what to do.

1. I / We shall drop you a line as soon as I / we get to London.
2. I think the government should do something about the economy.
3. At nine o’clock tomorrow, the manager will be addressing the business meeting.
4. By the end of this year, he will have graduated from Amikom College.
5. The sales meeting will be held soon; you should plan to be attendance.
6. Jane will have been employed for 25 years before she retires.
7. By the end of this year, he will have been studying at Amikom College for approximately two years.
8. He promised he would be punctual in payment for his rent.
9. I wish somebody would give me a job.
10. You can get in touch with me by telephone at 371415.
11. After the success of Windows 95, Microsoft could outsell any competitor.
12. To improve your spoken English, we wish all of you could join us in AECC (Amikom English Conversation Club).
13. Doctors may be able to operate on patients at a distance in future.
14. Don’t call on him at 8:30. He may / might be expecting guests.
15. He may be in the office now.
16. I don’t know what his occupation is. He may be a computer programmer.
17. Could / Can / May I look at your newspaper? Could / Can / May have a light?
18. You mustn’t make unauthorized copies of software.
19. You have been working hard all day. You must be tired.
20. Do you / Does he have the courage to ask your / his employer for a raise in a pay?
21. How much did you put aside every month while you were working abroad?
22. You needn’t learn how to program in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) before designing web pages.

23. You had better mind your own business.
24. As you are unemployed, you might as well accept the job offer.
25. She would rather have a laptop than a palmtop.

26. Why put off the plan until tomorrow?
27. Why not carry it out right now?

28. I hear say the price of a computer is going up.
29. It’s foolish to let slip such an opportunity.
30. They made believe they knew everything.

31. Graphical User Interface lets you point to icons and click a mouse button to execute a task.
32. The new director made all of the staff members work hard.
33. I had them cope with the problem themselves.
34. We have never known our manager lose his temper.
35. I never find my assistant neglect his work.

36. The police found him hack into / hacking into a computer system.
37. We heard him talk about / talking about this incident.
38. I listened to them talk over / talking over the problem.
39. She smelt something burn / burning.
40. I saw you peep through / peeping through the window of the teaching staff room.

41. Be careful.
42. Arrange the icons.
43. Adjust the speaker volume.
44. Shut down the system.
45. Debug the program.
46. Display the date.
47. Click on the Find button to start the search.
48. Select the appropriate programming language.
49. Let’s (us) go home now.

Compound Sentences with Coordinate Conjunctions:
▪ The computer age has arrived, and it is changing our lives.
▪ Computers have made communicating and doing business faster and more convenient, and they have greatly increased our access to information.
▪ He offered me a job last week, but I have not made up my mind yet.
▪ Personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost.
▪ The company’s sales increased last year, yet its net profit declined.
▪ He earns a good salary, yet he never seems to have any money.
▪ International companies are growing, so they will soon need more bilingual workers.
▪ Canada has two official languages, so government documents are printed in both English and French.
▪ Websites can give you detailed street maps for major cities, or they can give you a map of interstate highways.
▪ Young people should know a second language, or they will be at a disadvantage in the international job market.

Compound Sentences with Conjunctive Adverbs:
▪ Voice input devices are available today; however, they are not very common.
▪ I cannot attend the meeting; nevertheless, you should resolve the major issues.
▪ We must meet the deadline; hence, a decision is needed now.
▪ Voice recognition systems are becoming more sophisticated; thus, keyboards may be unnecessary in the future.
▪ Singapore lies very near to the equator; consequently, the weather is very hot all the year round.
▪ There is no demand for this make of car; accordingly, I am not able to give you any orders.
▪ John is kind; moreover, he is generous.
▪ Television is entertaining; furthermore, it is sometimes instructive.
▪ He will study IT for six years; then, he will be a systems analyst.
▪ I do not like that notebook; besides, it is too expensive.
▪ You should get the license right away; otherwise, you will have to pay a fine (= denda).

Compound Sentences with Transition Expression:
▪ It is too late to finish the work; in fact, it is time to go home.
▪ He is not a stupid person; on the contrary, he is quite intelligent.
▪ They may go to the concert; on the other hand, they may decide to attend the lecture.
▪ John worked hard all year; as a result, he was promoted.
▪ He is going to England next year; in the mean time, he is studying English.

Compound Sentences with Semicolons:
▪ The microcomputer is small and portable; it is easy to take it from place to place.
▪ Motherhood causes some women to quit their jobs; others continue working despite / in spite of having children to care for.

SOAL
1. Making a site about movies are my roommate’s hobby.
abcd
2. Finding information on the World Wide Web need an Internet search engine.
abcd
3. Managing the computer’s resources are an important function of the operating system.
abcd
4. Adding more memory let your computer to work faster.
abcd
5. Being honest at all times are not always easy.
abcd
6. Learning to use a computer is not as difficult as to learn to program.
abcd
7. Not doing one’s work properly may be worse than not to do it at all.
abcd
8. Another function of the operating system is provide services for application software.
abcd
9. We will have to consider use another company if they can’t provide the software we need.
abcd
10. She denied to steal any money from the cash register.
abcd
11. Now she regrets not to study harder when she was in college.
abcd
12. I think people must give up to attempt to gain unauthorized access to network systems.
abcd
13. You can avoid being hack into by installing firewalls.
abcd
14. I clearly remembered to shut down the system before I left, but I forgot to switch off.
abcd
15. Quite a few of them are interested in major in Information Technology at Amikom College.
abcd
16. Computers have made radical changes in prepare income tax returns.
abcd
17. A password is a mechanism for identifying the computer-user and allow access.
abcd
18. The main reason for install more memory is to allow the computer to process data faster.
abcd
19. A programmer designs, writes, and tests programs for performing various task on a computer.
abcd
20. The worker was fired for not to get to work on time.
abcd
21. My student is thinking about to apply for a government grant to continue his research.
abcd
22. Computers have a way of communicate with the persons using them.
abcd
23. The young man was suspected to hacking into a network system.
abcd
24. I look forward to input data by voice instead of using a keyboard.
abcd
25. He objected to pay expensive telephone calls for Internet access.
abcd
26. It took me a long time to get used to wear contact lenses.
abcd
27. He cannot get used to log on with a password.
abcd
28. Start the search by click on their Find button.
abcd
29. Computers cannot do anything without programming correctly.
abcd
30. They cannot carry out their plans without supporting with the fund.
abcd
31. The entire program should be tested after writing.
abcd
32. Before code a program, a programmer should design the program by creating a flowchart or by
abc
using another method of program design.
d

33. I am not tired despite of working hard all day.
abcd
34. It is a waste of money to buy things that you don’t need.
abcd
35. Is it necessary for us create web pages for a personal website?
abcd
36. It took her ten months conduct such research.
abcd
37. The role of the operating system is to communicate direct with the hardware.
abcd
38. One of the key function of the operating system is to establish a user interface.
abcd
39. There were a lot of traffic-jams this morning, but we manage to get to work on time.
abcd
40. The operating system failed booting although she had tried to start up the computer several times.
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41. If you want to link your PC with a mainframe, you will need installing a network.
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42. Quite few of the companies can afford purchasing a mainframe.
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43. I try to get in touch with the manager this morning, but I missed him again.
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44. My cheap PC seems to be just as well as John’s expensive one.
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45. The Help facility enables users get advice on most problems.
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46. Windows allow you to display two different folders at the same time.
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47. Voice recognition software helps disabled users accessing computers.
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48. We are very sorry not being able to give you a definite reply in respect of the matter.
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49. All user requests to access a database is handled by the database management system.
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50. I don’t have the courage asking my employer for a raise in pay.
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51. The power to help others depend on the power to help oneself.
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1. He moved to Jakarta (in order / so as) to have a better opportunity to find a good position.
2. She subscribes to many different PC magazines and reads them all to keep up with the development of computer technology.

3. The problem is where to get the money.
4. He consulted his stockbroker on how to invest his money.
5. The computer operator showed me how to insert graphics into a document.
6. The office manager will explain to the new secretary where to work and what to do.

50. I / We shall drop you a line as soon as I / we get to London.
51. I think the government should do something about the economy.
52. At nine o’clock tomorrow, the manager will be addressing the business meeting.
53. By the end of this year, he will have graduated from Amikom College.
54. The sales meeting will be held soon; you should plan to be attendance.
55. Jane will have been employed for 25 years before she retires.
56. By the end of this year, he will have been studying at Amikom College for approximately two years.
57. He promised he would be punctual in payment for his rent.
58. I wish somebody would give me a job.
59. You can get in touch with me by telephone at 371415.
60. After the success of Windows 95, Microsoft could outsell any competitor.
61. To improve your spoken English, we wish all of you could join us in AECC (Amikom English Conversation Club).
62. Doctors may be able to operate on patients at a distance in future.
63. Don’t call on him at 8:30. He may / might be expecting guests.
64. He may be in the office now.
65. I don’t know what his occupation is. He may be a computer programmer.
66. Could / Can / May I look at your newspaper? Could / Can / May have a light?
67. You mustn’t make unauthorized copies of software.
68. You have been working hard all day. You must be tired.
69. Do you / Does he have the courage to ask your / his employer for a raise in a pay?
70. How much did you put aside every month while you were working abroad?
71. You needn’t learn how to program in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) before designing web pages.

72. You had better mind your own business.
73. As you are unemployed, you might as well accept the job offer.
74. She would rather have a laptop than a palmtop.

75. Why put off the plan until tomorrow?
76. Why not carry it out right now?

77. I hear say the price of a computer is going up.
78. It’s foolish to let slip such an opportunity.
79. They made believe they knew everything.

80. Graphical User Interface lets you point to icons and click a mouse button to execute a task.
81. The new director made all of the staff members work hard.
82. I had them cope with the problem themselves.
83. We have never known our manager lose his temper.
84. I never find my assistant neglect his work.

85. The police found him hack into / hacking into a computer system.
86. We heard him talk about / talking about this incident.
87. I listened to them talk over / talking over the problem.
88. She smelt something burn / burning.
89. I saw you peep through / peeping through the window of the teaching staff room.

90. Be careful.
91. Arrange the icons.
92. Adjust the speaker volume.
93. Shut down the system.
94. Debug the program.
95. Display the date.
96. Click on the Find button to start the search.
97. Select the appropriate programming language.
98. Let’s (us) go home now.

Compound Sentences with Coordinate Conjunctions:
▪ The computer age has arrived, and it is changing our lives.
▪ Computers have made communicating and doing business faster and more convenient, and they have greatly increased our access to information.
▪ He offered me a job last week, but I have not made up my mind yet.
▪ Personal computers have made our lives easier, but they have done so at a cost.
▪ The company’s sales increased last year, yet its net profit declined.
▪ He earns a good salary, yet he never seems to have any money.
▪ International companies are growing, so they will soon need more bilingual workers.
▪ Canada has two official languages, so government documents are printed in both English and French.
▪ Websites can give you detailed street maps for major cities, or they can give you a map of interstate highways.
▪ Young people should know a second language, or they will be at a disadvantage in the international job market.

Compound Sentences with Conjunctive Adverbs:
▪ Voice input devices are available today; however, they are not very common.
▪ I cannot attend the meeting; nevertheless, you should resolve the major issues.
▪ We must meet the deadline; hence, a decision is needed now.
▪ Voice recognition systems are becoming more sophisticated; thus, keyboards may be unnecessary in the future.
▪ Singapore lies very near to the equator; consequently, the weather is very hot all the year round.
▪ There is no demand for this make of car; accordingly, I am not able to give you any orders.
▪ John is kind; moreover, he is generous.
▪ Television is entertaining; furthermore, it is sometimes instructive.
▪ He will study IT for six years; then, he will be a systems analyst.
▪ I do not like that notebook; besides, it is too expensive.
▪ You should get the license right away; otherwise, you will have to pay a fine (= denda).

Compound Sentences with Transition Expression:
▪ It is too late to finish the work; in fact, it is time to go home.
▪ He is not a stupid person; on the contrary, he is quite intelligent.
▪ They may go to the concert; on the other hand, they may decide to attend the lecture.
▪ John worked hard all year; as a result, he was promoted.
▪ He is going to England next year; in the mean time, he is studying English.

Compound Sentences with Semicolons:
▪ The microcomputer is small and portable; it is easy to take it from place to place.
▪ Motherhood causes some women to quit their jobs; others continue working despite / in spite of having children to care for.

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