Complex Sentence (= Kalimat Majemuk Bertingkat): kalimat yang mempunyai Main Clause (= Klausa Induk) dan Sub(ordinate) Clause
(= Klausa Anak).
Clause (= klausa): kalimat dalam kalimat.
Kalimat: serangkaian kata yang paling sedikit mempunyai subyek (s) dan predikat (p).
Main Clause: klausa yang dapat berdiri sendiri dalam arti mempunyai makna yang lengkap tanpa Sub Clause.
Sub Clause: klausa yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri dalam arti tidak mempunyai makna yang lengkap tanpa Main Clause. Sub Clause dapat berfungsi sebagai berikut:
Adjective Clause (= Klausa Sifat),
Noun Clause (= Klausa Benda), dan
Adverbial Clause (= Klausa Keterangan).
A. Adjective Clause
Dalam Complex Sentence, Sub Clause dapat berfungsi sebagai Adjective Clause.
Adjective (= kata sifat): kata yang menerangkan kata benda.
Jadi, Adjective Clause: klausa yang menerangkan kata benda.
Kata benda (= noun) yang diterangkan oleh Adjective Clause disebut Noun Antecedent.
P the technician.
P my laptop.
P the technician
P my laptop.
Sub Clause sebagai
(Person) (= … yang …)
sebagai Subyek (Diikuti P)
S is my secretary.
S is typing
P in the room.
S is typing
P in the room
Adjunct is my secretary.
Sub Clause sebagai
Noun Antecedent Main Clause
(= … yang …)
Relative Pronoun sebagai Subyek
P the man.
S had hired
P the man
S had hired
Main Clause Sub Clause sebagai
(= … yang …)
Relative Pronoun sebagai Obyek (Relative Pronoun diikuti Subyek dan dapat dihilangkan)
P the man.
S had borrowed
P the money
P the man
S had borrowed
P the money.
Main Clause Sub Clause sebagai
(Person) Relative Pronoun sebagai Obyek Preposisi (from)
(Relative Pronoun diikuti Subyek)
(= She paid the man whom she had borrowed the money from )
(= She paid the man she had borrowed the money from )
The manager has just called me.
His secretary offered me a job yesterday.
The manager whose secretary offered me a job yesterday has just called me.
Input and output are handled by machines.
The machines are called I / O devices.
Input and output are handled by machines which (or that) are called
I / O devices.
The data is called the input.
The data is presented to the computer.
The data which (or that) is presented to the computer is called the input.
The services are useful.
The workers provide the services .
The services which (or that) the workers provide are useful.
(= The services the workers provide are useful.
The department is systems operations.
He works in the department .
The department in which he works is systems operations.
(= The department which he works in is systems operations)
(= The department that he works in is systems operations)
(= The department he works in is systems operations)
(= The department where he works is systems operations)
The laptop is mine.
The color of the laptop is grey.
The laptop, the color of which is grey, is mine. (Am, E)
(= The laptop, of which the colour is grey, is mine. (Br, E)
(= The laptop, whose color is grey, is mine. (Informal)
Penggunaan Relative Pronoun whom setelah both of, neither of, either of, dan sebagainya dengan Noun Antecedent Person
She has two brothers. Both of them major in IT.
She has two brothers, both of whom major in IT. (= … yang kedua-duanya mengambil jurusan …)
She has two brothers, neither of whom majors in IT. (= … yang tak seorangpun …)
She has two brothers, either of whom majors in IT. (= … yang salah seorang …)
Ten people, most of whom were very qualified, applied for the job.
Penggunaan Relative Pronoun which setelah both of, neither of, either of, dan sebagainya dengan Noun Antecedent Thing
He has two PCs. Both of them are sophisticated.
He has two PCs, both of which are sophisticated.
He has two PCs, neither of which is sophisticated.
He has two PCs, either of which is sophisticated.
Tom made a number of suggestions, most of which were very helpful.
They gave us a lot of information, most of which was very useful.
Penggunaan Relative Adverb where dengan Noun Antecedent Place
The department where he works is systems operation.
Penggunaan Relative Adverb when dengan Noun Antecedent Time
Do you remember the year when you began working at this company?
Penggunaan Relative Adverb why dengan Noun Antecedent Reason
I want to know the reason why she does not like this job.
Non Essential Adjective Clause
Dalam Non Essential Adjective Clause, Adjective Clause dipisahkan dengan koma dan penggunaanya bersifat tambahan serta jumlah Noun Antecerdentnya tidak lebih dari yang ada.
Tom, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job.
I have two brothers, who work at the Embassy. (Saudara saya hanya dua)
Essential Adjective Clause
Dalam Essential Adjective Clause, Adjective Clause tidak dipisahkan dengan koma dan penggunaanya merupakan keharusan serta jumlah Noun Antecerdentnya lebih dari yang ada.
The girl whose father is the manager of a company helped me to get a job.
I have two brothers who work at the Embassy. (Saudara saya lebih dari dua)
The laptop is mine. Its colour is grey.
The laptop, of which the colour is grey, is mine. (Br.E)
The laptop is mine. The color of the laptop is grey.
The laptop, the color of which is grey, is mine. (Am.E)
The laptop, whose colour is grey, is mine. (Informal)
1. Simple Sentence
2. Compound Sentence
3. Complex Sentence:
a. Adjective Clause
b. Noun Clause
c. Adverbial Clause
4. Compound and Complex Sentence.
The economic activities make up the economic system. People undertake these economic activities.
THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES which (or that) people undertake make up the economic system.
( = THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES people undertake make up the economic system)
– The office is a long way from his house. He works at the office.
THE OFFICE at which he works is a long way from his house.
( = THE OFFICE which he works at is a long way from his house)
( = THE OFFICE that he works at is a long way from his house)
( = THE OFFICE he works at is a long way from his house)
(= THE OFFICE where he works at is a long way from his house)
- Do you remember THE YEAR when you began working at this company?
– I want to know THE REASON why she doesn’t like this job.
– TOM, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job.
THE LADY whose father is the manager of a company, helped me to get a job.
Both of / neither of / either of + relative pronoun
– I have two brothers. Both of them major in IT.
I have TWO BROTHERS, both of whom major in IT.
I have TWO BROTHERS, neither of whom majors in IT.
I have TWO BROTHERS, either of whom majors in IT.
– He has two Pcs. Both of them are sophisticated.
– He has two Pcs, both of which are sophisticated.
– He has two Pcs, neither of which is sophisticated.
– He has two Pcs, either of which is majors in IT.
– TEN PEOPLE, most of whom were very qualified, applied for the job.
– Tom made A NUMBER OF SUGGESTIONS, most of which were very helpful.
– They gave us LOT OF INFORMATION, most of which was very useful.
PARTICIPLE PHRASE AS ALTERNATIVES
FOR ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
1. I HAVE NO MONEY. I will not go. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I will not go.
(= Because I have no money, I will not go.)
2. I HAVE NO MONEY. I will go. (2 Simple Sentence dengan 2 subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I will go.
( = Although I have no money, I will go.)
3. I HAVE NO MONEY. I cannot do much. (2 simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I cannot do much.
(= IF I have no money, I cannot do much.)
4. I HAVE NO MONEY. I must buy this book. (2 simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu I)
HAVING NO MONEY, I must buy this book.)
(= While I have no money, I must buy this book.)
5. WE HAD NOTHING TO DO. We went home. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu WE)
HAVING NOTHING TO DO, We went home.
(= As we had nothing to do, we went home.)
6. HE WAS SICK. He didn’t go to school. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu HE)
BEING SICK, he didn’t go to school.
(= Because he was sick, he didin’t go to school.)
7. MY FATHER WAS SICK. I didn’t go to school. (2 Simple Sentence dengan subject yang tidak sama. Subject kalimat pertama MY FATHER dan subject kalimat kedua I)
MY FATHER BEING SICK, I didn’t go to school.
(= because my father was sick, I didn’t go to school.)
8. THEY WERE IMPRESSED BY THE YOUNG MAN’S QUALIFICATIONS. They offered him a good job. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu THEY. Kalimat pertama kalimat pasif dan kalimat kedua kalimat aktif.)
IMPRESSED BY THE YOUNG MAN’S QUALIFICATIONS, They offered him a good job.
(= Because they were impressed by the young man’s qualification, they offered him a job.)
9. SHE WAS TALKING IN THE PARK. She suddenly had a heart attack. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu SHE.)
WALKING IN THE PARK, she suddenly hahd a heart attack.
(= While she was walking in the park, she suddenly had a heart attack.)
10. HE DID NOT KNOW THE ANSWER OF THE TEST ITEM. He asked his teacher a question. (2 Simple Sentences dengan subject yang sama, yaitu SHE. Kalimat pertama kalimat negatif.)
NOT KNOWLING THE ANSWER OF THE TEST ITEM, he asked his teacher a question.
(= Because they did not know the answer of the test item, he asked his teacher a question.)
THE WORD “IT”
A. IT Mengacu pada Kata Sebelumnya
– We saw film last Saturday. IT was very interesting. I enjoy IT very much.
– When he had metal. IT expands. IT grows bigger than was before.
B. IT sebagai subjecy kosong
– What time is IT now’ IT is six o’clock.
– What day is IT today? IT is Sunday.
– IT is fine today.
– IT is raining.
– IT is 37 degrees celcius.
– How far is IT to … from …?
– IT is smoky
– IT is dirty.
6. Situasi Sekarang
– IT is a shame
– IT is awful
7. Pasang / Surut Air
– IT is high tide.
– IT is low tide.
C. Preparatory IT sebagai Subject
– IT is essential TO BOOK IN ADVANCE.
– IT is important THAT HE COMES STRAIGHT TO ME WHEN SHE ARRIVES.
– IT is not easy TO GET HER TO CHANGE HER MIND.
– IT must be hard TO LIVE ON SALARY.
– IT is possible TO GO BY LAND
– IT is probable THAT WE’LL BE A LITTLE LATE.
– IT is not very useful TO READ THE WHOLE BOOK.
– IT is pointless TO GO THERE ON MONDAY – there is a public holiday.
– IT is unusual TO SEE JOHN WITH A GIRL.
6. Time taken
– IT took me two hours TO GO HOME LAST NIGHT.
7. Emotional reaction
– IT is interesting TO SEE DIFFERENT CULTURES AND WAY OF LIFE.
– IT is really astonishing THAT SHE REFUSED TO TALK TO YOU.
– IT shocked me THAT JOHN DIDN’T TELL WHERE HE WAS.
– Is IT true THAT SHE IS ILL?
– Will IT suit you TO COME TOMORROW EVENING ?
10. Ideas coming into one’s head
– IT occurred to me THAT SHE MIGHT HAVE FORGOTTON THE DATE.
– IT appears THAT JOHN MIGHT CHANGE HIS MIND.
– IT seems obvious THAT WE CAN’T GO ON LIKE THIS.
12. IT dengan “ for + object + infinitive “
– IT is pointless for + all of us + TO GO THERE. One will be enough.
– IT is essential for + the papers + TO BE READY BEFORE FRIDAY.
– IT is a must for + us + TO PERFORM OUR DUTY.
13. IT dengan ing-forms
– IT is no good PRETENDING TO BE INTELEGENT.
– IT is (there is) no use CRYING OVER SPILT MILK. Let by gone be gone.
– Is IT (is there) any use INFORMING THEM ABOUT YOUR PLANS.
– IT is no use ASKING HER – he doesn’t know anything.
– IT is useless MAKING SUCH A PLAN WITHOUT BEING SUPPORTED BY ADEQUATE PLAN.
14. IT dengan adjectives of urgency
– IT is important THAT EVERYBODY SHOULD BE TOLD THE FACTS. (British)
IT is important THAT EVERYBODY BE TOLD THE FACTS. (American)
15. Di samping IT dengan THAT-CLAUSES diatas, ada juga IT dengan clauses lainnya yang ditandai dengan WHO, WHICH, WHETHER, WHEN, WHAT, AS IF / AS THOUGH. HOW MANYB / HOW MUCH dan sebagainya.
– IT was John WHO / THAT CAME ON SATURDAY. (Penekanan pada John.
– IT was on Saturday THAT JOHN CAME. (Penekanan pada on Saturday)
– IT was Joh’n dog THAT / WHICH BIT ME.
– IT doesn’t interest me WHETHER YOU SUCCEED OR NOT.
– IT doesn’t matter WHEN YOU ARRIVE – just come when you can.
– IT wasn’t very clear THAT SHE MEANT.
D. Preparatory sebagai Object
– I think IT important THAT WE SHOULD KEEP CALM.
– I find IT difficult TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT ANYTHING SERIOUS.
A. Supply the correct forms of verbs in parentheses.
1. The invention of new types of memory devices never (cease).
2. The issuer of credits card (provide) a short-term loan to the cardholder.
3. The main question on most people’s minds (be) why e-mail security is necessary.
4. The best in most widely used type of encrytion (utilize) a pair of mathematically related number.
5. Companies with excess computing capacity (be) able to market information services as a new business opportunity.
6. A review of the procedures (require) our attention.
7. Her letter, together with the enclosures, (be) here.
8. Any one of the applicants (be) capable of doing it.
9. Fifty dollars (be) the amount he owes.
10. The director, not the staff members, (be ) late every morning last week.
11. The computer programmer, as well as his assistants, (be) busy lately.
12. He, not I, (be) going to the interview the applicant.
13. Six years before retirement (seem) like a long time.
14. Manpower, rather than natural recources, (be) more important.
15. This PC, unlike those ones, (be) really powerful.
16. (Be) John or Jane coming to the meeting?
17. Not the staff members but the director (be) wrong.
18. The computers or the sofware (be) crucial.
B. Put each of the verbs in parentheses in the following sentences in its correct from.
1. Microsoft (release) Access in 1991.
2. Database processing (change) continuously since 1970.
3. There (be) a lot of advances in computer technology since 1945.
4. By 1990, some vendors (develop) object-oriented DBMS products.
5. By the end of this year, they (work) on Information Management for approximately eight months.
C. Supply the correct passive voice forms of the verbs in parentheses to complete the following sentences.
1. Multi-user databases (manage) by a piece of software called a database management system.
2. Fiber-0ptic cable (install) on a large scale since 1980.
3. The order (send) before the cancellation was received.
4. Alternatively, databases can (create) from axtracts of other databases.
5. All micro DBMS products (eliminate) by Microsoft Access in the early 1990s.
Infinitive tanpa to
Bentuk Infinitive tanpa to
– Kata kerja
– Bentuk aktif
- Bentuk pasif
- Kata sifat
punctual be punctual (= tepat waktu)
able be able ( = dapat/mampu)
– Kata benda (kelompok kata benda)
A computer programmer be a computer programmer
(= pemrogram komputer)
– Keterangan tempat
in the office be in the office (= di kantor)
Penggunaan infinitive tanpa to
1. Setelah auxiliary verbs
Shall/should, will/would, can/could, may/might, must, do/does/did. & need.
– I / We shall/will drop you a line (= mengabari) as soos as (= segera setelah) I/we get to (= sampai di) London.
– I think the government should do something about the economy.
– At nine o’clock tomorrow, the manager will be addressing (= berpidato dalam) the business meeting.
– By the end of this year, he will have graduated from Amikom college.
– The sales meeting will be held soon; you should plan to be attendance.
– Jane will have been employed for 25 years before she retires.
– By the end of this years, he will have been studying at Amikom college for approximately two years.
– He promised he would be punctual in payment for his rent.
– I wish somebody would give me a job.
– You can get into with (= menghubungi) me by telephone at 371415.
– After the success of Windows 95, Microsoft could outsell (= menjual lebih banyak dari) any competitor.
– To improve your spoken English, we wish all of you could join us in AECC (Amikom English Conservation Club).
– Doctors may be able to operate on patients at a distance in future.
– Don’t call on him at 8:30. He may/might be expecting (= menjamu) guests.
– He may be in the office now.
– I don’t know what his occupation is. He may be a computer programmer.
– Could/Can/May I look at your newspaper? /have a light? /etc.
– You musn’t make unauthorized copies of software.
– You have been working hard all day. You must be tired.
– Do you/Does he have the courage to ask your/his employer for a raise in a pay?
– How much did you put aside (= menabung) every month while you were working abroad?
– You needn’t learn how to program in HTML (HyperText Markup Language) before designing webpages.
2. Setelah ungkapan tertentu
– You had better (= sebaiknya) mind your own business.
– As you are unemployed, you might as well (= sebaiknya) accept the job offer.
– She would rather (= lebih suka) have a laptop than a palmtop.
3. Setelah Why … ? Why not …?
– Why put off (= menunda) the plain until tomorrow ? Why not carry it out (= melaksanakan) right now?
4. Pada idiom tertentu
– I hear say (= kabarnya) the price of a computer is going up.
– It’s foolish to let slip (= melewatkan) such an opportunity.
– They made believe (= berlagak) they knew everything.
– We have to make do with (= mencukup-cukupkan dengan) the money we have.
5. Untuk pelengkap obyek
– Graphical User Interface lets you point to (= menunjuk ke) icons and click a mouse button to execute a task.
– The new director made all of the staff members work hard.
– I had them cope with (= memecahkan) the problem themselves.
– We have never known our manager lose his temper (= marah)
– I never find my assistant neglect (= mengabaikan) ghis work.
* The police found him hacking into (= membobol) a computer system.
– We heard him talk (talking) about this incident.
– I listened to them talk (talking) over (= membahas) the problem.
– She smelt something burn (burning) (= berbau sesuatu terbakar).
– I saw you peep (peeping) through (= mengintip) the window of the teaching staff room.
6. Untuk kalimat perintah
– Be careful.
– Arrange (= susunlah) the icons.
– Adjust ( = aturlah) the speaker volume.
– Shut down ( =hentikanlah aktivitas) the system.
– Debug (= hilangkan kesalahan dari) the program.
– Display (= tampilkanlah) the date.
– Click on the Find button to start the search.
– Select (= pilihlah) the appropriate programming language.
– Let’s (us) go home now.